Hung et al followed 189 patients over 28 months in which patients in various stages of coronary artery disease were followed and serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule
were highest in cases of acute coronary event and lowest but still raised in cases of chronic coronary atherosclerosis.
We examined the in vitro effects of asiatic acid on TNF-[alpha]-induced increased endothelial permeability, increased expression of adhesion molecules
, monocyte adhesion and monocyte migration.
Nagaishi et al., "Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cellular adhesion molecule
1 isoforms alternatively inhibit and costimulate human T cell function," The Journal of Immunology, vol.
Gimbrone Jr., "Endothelial expression of a mononuclear leukocyte adhesion molecule
during athero-genesis," Science, vol.
HIV infection, HAART, and endothelial adhesion molecules
: current perspectives.
Thus, effector cells up-regulate the expression of receptors for inflammation-induced endothelial adhesion molecules
and inflammatory chemokines.
The knowledge of molecular immunopathogenesis and complexities of effector mechanisms in chronic urticaria has been enhanced by immunohistologic studies performed on sequential biopsies of urticarial wheals and focused on infiltrating cell immunophenotypes and related cytokines, chemokines/chemokine receptors, and adhesion molecules
Recent studies have also established that activation of PARP plays a pivotal role in the overexpression of adhesion molecules
and cytokines  and also on peroxynitrite formation .
Surface adhesion molecules
, such as Selectins family, contribute to the development and progression of atherosclerosis.
The serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules
derived from endothelial cells may serve as additional markers of endothelial damage or functional status [6, 7, 32-34].
As part of this inflammatory response, endothelial adhesion molecules
The inter-individual variations of endothelial cell marker expression and soluble adhesion molecules
may explain why some patients develop adequate collateral circulation whereas others do not.