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(1) Management or direction.
(2) Formal bureaucratic management, conducted merely by orders and edicts; a commanding that ignores the role of the masses in the management of socialist production.
(1) In the broad sense, administration refers to all the managerial activities of a state, which Marx called “the organizational activity of the state” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 1, p. 440). The state administration of the USSR consists of the executive agencies of the state which exercise managerial functions—that is, the day-to-day management of economic, social, cultural, administrative, and political development in the Soviet socialist state.
(2) In the narrower sense, administration refers to the officials of an institution or enterprise. For instance, the director of an enterprise and his deputies or the head of a higher educational institution and his deputies constitute the administration of the enterprise or higher educational institution, respectively.
The actions of Soviet administration are governed by law. The general legal principles governing the actions of the state administration are set forth in the USSR Constitution and the constitutions of the Union and autonomous republics. The legal status and the competence of administrations of enterprises and institutions are specified in the charter of the institution. The Party organization in CPSU enterprises have the right, in conformity with the rules of the CPSU, to monitor the actions of the administration (art. 59). The work of administration is greatly assisted by the trade union organizations or enterprises and institutions, by permanent production conferences, and other organizations. The relations between different levels of administration are based on the principles of democratic centralism.
Every administration is invested with the necessary rights to fulfill the duties it is charged with—for instance, the right to issue acts of administration, to hire and dismiss workers and employees, and to reward and discipline subordinates. The administration of an institution or enterprise represents its interests with respect to outside parties. It concludes agreements, pleads in court, and represents the institution or enterprise in arbitration and other state agencies as well as in public organizations.
A. E. LUNEV