Tiraspol(redirected from Administrative Region of Tiraspol)
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a city under republic jurisdiction in the Moldavian SSR. A landing on the left bank of the Dnestr with a railroad station on the Odessa-Ungeny line. Population, 132,200 (1975; 38,000 in 1939, 63,000 in 1959,105,000 in 1970).
Tiraspol’ was founded in 1792 by A. V. Suvorov as a fortress built on the site of the ancient Moldavian settlement of Staraia Sukleia, which had been burned by the Turks in 1787. In 1795 the settlement around the fortress was named Tiraspol’ (from Tyras, the Greek name for the Dnestr, and polis, “city”) and proclaimed a city. In 1806, Tiraspol’ became a district capital of Kherson Province. In 1873 it was linked by rail with Kishinev. Seized during the Civil War of 1918–20 by White Guards, Tiraspol’ was liberated on Feb. 12, 1920, by the brigade of G. I. Kotovskii. From 1929 to 1940 it was the capital of the Moldavian ASSR. From July 1941 through Apr. 12, 1944, Tiraspol’ was occupied by fascist German troops.
After the Great Patriotic War of 1941–445, the city’s economy was rebuilt. Tiraspol’ today has a well-developed food-processing industry, which includes the Moldplodoovoshchprom Agroindustrial Production Association, a meat-packing combine, and a winery with distilling facilities. In addition to the Elektromash and Moldavizolit plants, Tiraspol’ has plants producing glass containers, metal-casting machinery, electrical fittings, lithographic metal plates, metal goods, and trailers. There are cotton and woodworking combines and clothing, textile, and furniture factories. The city has a pedagogical institute, a technicum for the food-processing industry, a fruit-and-vegetable sovkhoz and technicum, a medical school, and a music school. There is a drama theater and a museum of local lore. Tiraspol’ also has a state regional electric power plant.
The main street of Tiraspol’, 25th of October Street, was built between 1924 and 1940. The drama theater (architect G. M. Gotgel’f; reconstructed 1963, architect I. L. Shmurun) is at one end of the street, and two buildings of the pedagogical institute (architects M. E. Petrov and D. P. Kovalenko) are at the other. After the destruction of the years 1941–44, Tiraspol’ was rebuilt. In 1954 a comprehensive plan was adopted (architects V. P. Aleksandrov and I. L. Shmurun). Postwar buildings include the Palace of Soviets (1953, architect S. V. Vasil’ev) and the building of the Moldavian Research Institute for Irrigated Land Cultivation (1959, architect V. L. Dement’ev).
REFERENCESMaretskii, S. K. Tiraspol’. Kishinev, 1958.
Ocherki istorii Tiraspolia. Kishinev, 1967.