Grace Hopper

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Hopper, Grace,

1906–92, American computer scientist, b. New York City as Grace Brewster Murray. She was educated at Vassar College and Yale (Ph.D., 1934). After teaching at Vassar (1931–1943), she joined the U.S. Naval Reserve, serving on active duty until 1946. Assigned to the Bureau of Ordnance's computation project at Harvard, she worked on the Mark series of computers. At the conclusion of World War II she began her search for a means of making computer programs easier to write. Her answer was the compiler, a specialized program that translates instructions written in a programming language into the binary coding of machine language. In 1952 she unveiled the A-0 compiler, and Hopper began working on a compiler oriented to business tasks. In 1955 she introduced FLOW-MATIC, which became the prototype for the first commercially successful business-oriented programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
..... Click the link for more information.
, COBOL. Hopper returned to active duty with the Navy in 1967, charged with leading the effort to combine various versions of COBOL into USA Standard COBOL. She retired in 1986 with the rank of rear admiral.


See biography by K. W. Beyer (2009).

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Grace Hopper

US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Brewster Hopper (1906-12-09 to 1992-01-01), n?e Grace Brewster Murray.

Hopper is believed to have concieved the concept of the compiler with the A-0 in 1952. She also developed the first commercial high-level language, which eventually evolved into COBOL. She worked on the Mark I computer with Howard Aiken and with BINAC in 1949.

She is credited with having coined the term "debug", and the adage "it is always easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission" (with various wordings), which has been the guiding principle in sysadmin decisions ever since.

See also the entries debug and bug.

Hopper is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. In 1994, the US Navy named a new ship, the guided-missile destroyer USS Hopper, after her.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Last November, President Barack Obama awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to the late Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, who invented the first compiler for a computer programming language, and Margaret Hamilton, who wrote code for the Apollo moon-landing program.
8, 2016, that the academy's future Cyber Building will be named after Navy Rear Admiral Grace Hopper.
Before joining the US Navy, Admiral Grace Hopper earned a PhD in Mathematics from Yale University as far back as 1934, becoming one of the first women to earn that distinction.
10 ( ANI ): Google is commemorating the 107th birthday of American computer scientist and US Navy Rear Admiral Grace Hopper.
Admiral Grace Hopper originated the well-known saying, "It's easier to apologize than it is to get permission." Her career in the Navy battling prejudice against females taught her that there are some policies and procedures that have simply outlived their applicability and usefulness.
Rear Admiral Grace Hopper, who died in 1992 at the age of 85, turned mathematical calculations into an English-like language that revolutionized how engineers instructed early computers.
And during WW II, Admiral Grace Hopper pioneered computers, forever changing the way the Navy, and America, operates.