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time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. Physiological changes lead to sexual maturity and usually occur during the first several years of the period. This process of physical changes is known as puberty, and it generally takes place in girls between the ages of 8 and 14, and boys between the ages of 9 and 16. In puberty, the pituitary gland increases its production of gonadotropins, which in turn stimulate the production of predominantly estrogen in girls, and predominantly testosterone in boys. Estrogen and testosterone are responsible for breast development, hair growth on the face and body, and deepening voice. These physical changes signal a range of psychological changes, which manifest themselves throughout adolescence, varying significantly from person to person and from one culture to another. Psychological changes generally include questioning of identity and achievement of an appropriate sex role; movement toward personal independence; and social changes in which, for a time, the most important factor is peer group relations. Adolescence in Western societies tends to be a period of rebellion against adult authority figures, often parents or school officials, in the search for personal identity. Many psychologists regard adolescence as a byproduct of social pressures specific to given societies, not as a unique period of biological turmoil. In fact, the classification of a period of life as "adolescence" is a relatively recent development in many Western societies, one that is not recognized as a distinct phase of life in many other cultures.


See T. Hine, The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager (1999).


the stage in the LIFE COURSE between childhood and adulthood marked by the beginnings of adult sexuality but coming before full adult status or final detachment from the FAMILY OF ORIGIN OR ORIENTATION.

In simple societies the passage from childhood to adulthood is often marked by rites de passage (see RITUAL), or by the provision of young mens (and less often young women's) AGE SETS. However, it is within modern societies, with their distinctive emphasis on YOUTH CULTURE, fostered by the MASS MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION, that adolescence has achieved a particular importance. In these societies, in contrast to more TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES, adolescents must choose their CAREERS and sexual partners as well as their general LIFESTYLE. Thus adolescence, the time of educational examinations and entry into work, is also a stage in the life cycle which is associated with individual experimentation in sexual and leisure behaviour. It may also be a time for questioning received values, and of rebellion against parental patterns of behaviour (see also GENERATION). The search for independence, and the heightened sense of self-awareness and uncertainty about SELF, can also lead to psychological crisis and psychological disturbance. See also YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, DELINQUENCY.


Stage in the cycle of erosion following youth and preceding maturity.
The period of life from puberty to maturity.


novel of young love. [Am. Lit.: Booth Tarkington Seventeen in Magill I, 882]
References in periodicals archive ?
Divergent realities: The emotional lives of mothers, fathers, and adolescents.
From the start this has been a collaborative work in NAADAC by those holding the view that adolescents in treatment should have sufficient clinical care that is easy to access and uniquely tailored to their needs.
School counselors are uniquely positioned to inform and educate adolescents about the harmful effects of substance use, a role spelled out by the American School Counselor Association (2005).
The PRSTD cohort consists of adolescents who live in Baltimore and have sought reproductive health services at a public STD or general adolescent health clinic in the eastern region of the city, a lower income area.
Flat-out stupid because all of this goes on, and we act surprised when cross-cultural research reveals that American adolescents are among the most sexually illiterate teens (e.
Thomas Grisso, Double Jeopardy: Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders.
Other recent evidence also suggests that a positive family environment, inclusive of positive parent-child relationships, consistent supervision and communication of prosocial and healthy values and expectations, act as major deterrents for youths and adolescents to engage in negative and unhealthy behaviors and are associated with better school performance and psychosocial development.
In this paper some of the advantages and challenges for classroom-based researchers using focus groups with adolescents are presented.
Adolescents represent a vulnerable population for study because of the rapid changes that occur during this period of life.
The percentage of adolescents who were up to date on all three vaccines at baseline was low (12%-13%) in the study population, so the intervention might have a smaller impact in populations with higher baseline rates, Dr.
Although most adolescents continue to maintain a positive emotional tie with parents their relationship with parents also changes.
SAN DIEGO -- Adolescents with a history of alcohol use report a significant range of risk behaviors for problematic substance use and other problem behaviors, a study of adolescents being treated in the emergency department for an alcohol-related incident shows.

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