In other words, how are different types of formal encoding (additional adpositions
, word order, case, ...) distributed over different locations?
In the second stage of this process, new cases derive from the locative forms of adpositions
(postpositions in the case of Permic languages), i.e.
Languages that fall into this group have one adposition
or case ending that is used in all three cases.
In this paper we apply the concept of Force Dynamics in an analysis of Finnish near-synonymous adpositional constructions that involve the path adposition
lapi 'through', and argue that these constructions show differences in the degree of force dynamics they indicate in actual usage.
Section 2 defines the lexical categories Noun, Adjective, Verb, and Adposition
by means of the semantic properties of reference, attribution, and predication.
A B Object Verb Adverb Verb Main Verb Modal Noun Modifier Noun (Adjective, Relative Clause, Adverbial attribute, Genitive attribute) Standard of comparison Comparative adjective Noun phrase Adposition
(Preposition, Postposition) Vennemann (1974: 345-346)
expression of grammatical relations by means of the adposition
peraan); however, there is also a counterexample, e.g.
The function of an adposition
can be adopted by a verb form (Uuspold 2001, see also Jaakola 1997).
yi and Word Order in Classical Chinese." Journal of Chinese Linguistics 19:202-19.
1) Although the topic here is "case", which in some theories is limited to core grammatical cases and/or dependent morphology (noun inflection), we have included semantically highly specified functions of noun phrases and have not limited ourselves to morphological case but have also included morphologically independent material such as adpositions
(in many languages, the distinction between case inflection and adposition
depends on the theoretical approach anyway).
The analysis of the corresponding form ra where the adposition
-ra/-re and the agreement marker -a/-e merge into a single syllable is identical since Align(LEX, [??], PWd, [??]) again enforces a PWord boundary to the left of the zero noun, and hence to the left of ra, while Align(PWd, [??], SD, [??]) induces a right PWord boundary at the right edge of ra.
The BLC is typified by a distinctive set of locative verbs(s), and an oblique NP indicating the Location (obliqueness marked by adposition
, case, adverbializer).