The encoding of direction (place, goal, source, route) in systems of adpositions
and local cases is not uniformly distributed over different locations (at, in, under), but can be shown to follow a hierarchical pattern.
However, languages differ regarding the way they encode the distinction between these three notions by spatial case affixes or adpositions
In this paper we apply the concept of Force Dynamics in an analysis of Finnish near-synonymous adpositional constructions that involve the path adposition
lapi 'through', and argue that these constructions show differences in the degree of force dynamics they indicate in actual usage.
Section 2 defines the lexical categories Noun, Adjective, Verb, and Adposition
by means of the semantic properties of reference, attribution, and predication.
expression of grammatical relations by means of the adposition
peraan); however, there is also a counterexample, e.
unlike adverbs and adpositions
, word forms with the Om+stO formative can take definite singular declination, which indicates a notion of reference, something associated with nouns.
A characteristic of the adpositional constructions in the journalistic texts of the 1890s is that information is presented as rumour; by using substantive as a modifier of the adposition
, (kuuld 0, (36), teade (37)) the actual source of information remains vague.
For example, the well-known correlation between the order of adposition
and noun and the order of possessor and possessee has been argued to be due either to grammaticalization processes whereby possessive constructions are reanalyzed as adpositional constructions, or to a principle whereby speakers tend to maximize structures that are easy to process (see, most recently, Dryer 2006).
The question is now whether languages recognize the family resemblance structure here in using the same adposition
, adverb or verb, to label such categories in (21).
The analysis of the corresponding form ra where the adposition
-ra/-re and the agreement marker -a/-e merge into a single syllable is identical since Align(LEX, [?
The BLC is typified by a distinctive set of locative verbs(s), and an oblique NP indicating the Location (obliqueness marked by adposition
, case, adverbializer).
The term "local phrase" denotes here any nominal, adverbial, or pronominal expression of the ground in motion events (semantic roles of goal, source, and companion), be it marked by an adposition
and/or case or be it unmarked.