There are about 88 special functional sites in adrenergic receptor
, mainly in TM3, TM4, TM5, TM6 and TM7 five domains .
For association between asthma and gene polymorphism the search terms used were: "Asthma* AND Polymorph* OR mutation OR variant AND beta2* OR b2 OR ADRb2 OR Adrenergic receptor
Limbird, "Mutations of the [[alpha].sub.2A]- adrenergic receptor
that eliminate detectable palmitoylation do not perturb receptor-G-protein coupling," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Flood, "[beta]2 adrenergic receptor
activation stimulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages via PKA- and NF-[kappa]B-independent mechanisms," Cellular Signalling, vol.
Phosphorylation of both insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrates, IRS-1 and IRS-2 is reduced when the beta adrenergic receptor
is activated as well demonstrated by Doronin et al.
Strictly speaking, however, direct evidence for 7-TM segments has been obtained for limited number of members, including muscarinic receptors, rhodopsin and [beta]2 adrenergic receptors
and several others.
Kobilka, "The PDZ binding motif of the j31 adrenergic receptor
modulates receptor trafficking and signaling in cardiac myocytes," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
SNPs have been identified in both Beta 1 and Beta 2 adrenergic receptors
, some serotonin receptors and reuptake pumps, dopamine receptors, coagulation cascade factors and more.
Immune cell types associated with innate immunity such as natural killer cells, neutrophils, and macrophages are the potential subjects to be regulated by catecholamines because these cells express functional, [beta]2- and/or [alpha]- adrenergic receptors
Polymorphisms of adrenergic receptors
: variations on a theme.
This comprehensive update provides the latest research along with best clinical practices and includes pathology, clinical presentations including signs and symptoms, differential diagnosis, special presentations such as when incidentally discovered with an adrenal mass, as an endocrine emergency, in children or in pregnancy, or as pseudopheochromocytoma, current trends in research of the genetics of pheochromocytoma, including in sporadic and other pheochromocytomas, catecholamines and adrenergic receptors
, current trends in biochemical diagnosis and in localization, medical therapy and preparation for surgery, postoperative management and future trends from genomics, proteomics and therapeutic modalities.