Adrian IV


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Adrian IV,

d. 1159, pope (1154–59), an Englishman (the only English pope), b. Nicholas Breakspear at Langley, near St. Albans. He was successor of Anastasius IV. At an early age he went to France. There he became an Augustinian canon and later an abbot. Pope Eugene III made him cardinal bishop of Albano and sent him to Scandinavia to organize the church. After his election to the papacy, Adrian defeated (1155) opposition of Arnold of BresciaArnold of Brescia
, c.1090–1155, Italian monk and reformer, b. Brescia. A priest of irreproachable life, Arnold studied at Paris, where according to tradition he was a pupil of Peter Abelard.
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. He crowned (1155) Frederick IFrederick I
or Frederick Barbarossa
[Ital.,=red beard], c.1125–90, Holy Roman emperor (1155–90) and German king (1152–90), son of Frederick of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, nephew and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III.
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 but fell into conflict with Frederick when the emperor, disregarding the Concordat of Worms, invested (1158 or 1159) imperial favorites in the archbishoprics of Cologne and Ravenna. To make peace (1156) with William of Sicily, who had invaded papal territory, Adrian acknowledged William's titles to Sicily, Apulia, and Capua. This angered Frederick, who had designs on the Two Sicilies, but it served to protect the Papal States against further imperial encroachments. Frederick's expressed intention to assume the government of Rome almost brought him excommunication. Adrian, forced by imperial intrigues to leave Rome, died before he could pronounce sentence. The historicity of Adrian's donation of Ireland, as a papal fief, to Henry II of England is the subject of scholarly dispute. He was succeeded by Alexander III.

Adrian IV

original name Nicholas Breakspear. ?1100--59, the only English pope (1154--59)
References in periodicals archive ?
Pope Adrian IV is largely remembered as the answer to a trivia question (who was the only English pope?
True to its title, Adrian IV continues with a series of primary sources, all available in Latin and English, including Cardinal Boso's Life of Adrian IV, relevant passages from historians such as Otto of Freising, Gerald of Wales, and Matthew Paris, and official documents from Adrian's pontificate.
One of the reasons why Adrian IV is so fascinating an object of study is the way in which his life and career intersected at one time or another with so much of the Europe of his day.
It seems that we have to wait for the twelfth-century canonists, and especially a famous decretal of Pope Adrian IV, for the simple declaration that since in Christ Jesus there is neither bond nor free, slaves might freely marry--but that brings us into an age when marriage had acquired, even in the eyes of celibate theologians, a sacramental aura of a positive kind.
The last previous non - Italian pope was Adrian VI of Utrecht, elected in 1522; the sole English pope was Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear), elected in 1154.
1154 Adrian IV becomes the only Englishman appointed pope.
On This Day: 1154: The only Englishman ever to become Pope, Nicholas Breakspear, became Adrian IV.
Which land was first colonised by Vikings underANSWERS: 1 Sussex; 2 Tripe; 3 Australia; 4 Nikolai Gogol; 5 Thin Lizzy; 6 He became Adrian IV, the only English pope; 7 A waterproof chamber which enables construction work under water; 8 Greenland; 9 Clarinet; 10 Martina Hingis.
On This Day: 1154: The only Englishman ever to be Pope, Nicholas Breakspear, became Adrian IV.
Various records mention Robert of Geneva, who became Pope Clement VII in 1378 and Nicholas Breakspear, who became Pope Adrian IV in the 12th Century.
Sad Steve says: Talking of blessings and your name, Adrian, what I do want to know is how come Adrian IV got to be Pope in 1154 and yet there hasn't been an English one since?