Adrian IV


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Adrian IV,

d. 1159, pope (1154–59), an Englishman (the only English pope), b. Nicholas Breakspear at Langley, near St. Albans. He was successor of Anastasius IV. At an early age he went to France. There he became an Augustinian canon and later an abbot. Pope Eugene III made him cardinal bishop of Albano and sent him to Scandinavia to organize the church. After his election to the papacy, Adrian defeated (1155) opposition of Arnold of BresciaArnold of Brescia
, c.1090–1155, Italian monk and reformer, b. Brescia. A priest of irreproachable life, Arnold studied at Paris, where according to tradition he was a pupil of Peter Abelard.
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. He crowned (1155) Frederick IFrederick I
or Frederick Barbarossa
[Ital.,=red beard], c.1125–90, Holy Roman emperor (1155–90) and German king (1152–90), son of Frederick of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, nephew and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III.
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 but fell into conflict with Frederick when the emperor, disregarding the Concordat of Worms, invested (1158 or 1159) imperial favorites in the archbishoprics of Cologne and Ravenna. To make peace (1156) with William of Sicily, who had invaded papal territory, Adrian acknowledged William's titles to Sicily, Apulia, and Capua. This angered Frederick, who had designs on the Two Sicilies, but it served to protect the Papal States against further imperial encroachments. Frederick's expressed intention to assume the government of Rome almost brought him excommunication. Adrian, forced by imperial intrigues to leave Rome, died before he could pronounce sentence. The historicity of Adrian's donation of Ireland, as a papal fief, to Henry II of England is the subject of scholarly dispute. He was succeeded by Alexander III.

Adrian IV

original name Nicholas Breakspear. ?1100--59, the only English pope (1154--59)
References in periodicals archive ?
ANSWERS: 1 The foot; 2 Atlantic and Pacific; 3 Jomo Kenyatta; 4 Argentina; 5 The bat; 6 Bob Beamon; 7 Whitney Houston; 8 Veritas; 9 Pope (Adrian IV); 10 Brobdingnag.
ANSWER: 1 The foot; 2 Atlantic and Pacific; 3 Jomo Kenyatta; 4 Argentina; 5 The bat; 6 Bob Beamon; 7 Whitney Houston; 8 Verites; 9 Pope (Adrian IV); 10 Brobdingnag.
The parchment, known as the Laudabiliter, was issued to King Henry II by Pope Adrian IV in 1171.
Adrian IV, The English Pope (1154-1159): Studies and Texts.
* the continuing Anglo-Irish struggle, begun when Pope Adrian IV granted overlordship of Ireland to King Henry II of England
It seems that we have to wait for the twelfth-century canonists, and especially a famous decretal of Pope Adrian IV, for the simple declaration that since in Christ Jesus there is neither bond nor free, slaves might freely marry--but that brings us into an age when marriage had acquired, even in the eyes of celibate theologians, a sacramental aura of a positive kind.
The last previous non - Italian pope was Adrian VI of Utrecht, elected in 1522; the sole English pope was Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear), elected in 1154.
WHO AM I: Lemar 10 QUESTIONS: 1 North Shields; 2 The Prince of Wales; 3 Marvin Gaye; 4 Pope Adrian IV (the only English Pope); 5 Honshu and Shikoku; 6 Every seven years; 7 Vitamin C; 8 Grandfather; 9 55-70 years; 10 Sugar Ray Robinson
1154 Adrian IV becomes the only Englishman appointed pope.
On This Day: 1154: The only Englishman ever to become Pope, Nicholas Breakspear, became Adrian IV. 1798: William Pitt the Younger introduced income tax to Britain.
Pope Adrian IV is the only pope in history to have been born where?
On This Day: 1154: The only Englishman ever to be Pope, Nicholas Breakspear, became Adrian IV. 1798: William Pitt the Younger introduced income tax to Britain for the first time.