Advanced Research Projects Agency

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Related to Advanced Research Projects Agency: Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, ARPANET

Advanced Research Projects Agency

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(Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) The research network funded by the U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) that was the precursor to the Internet. The project was conceived in 1966 by ARPA employee Robert Taylor, who wanted to share information among researchers at major universities.

The software was developed by Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN), and Honeywell 516 minicomputers were the first hardware used as packet switches. ARPAnet was launched in 1969 at two University of California campuses, the Stanford Research Institute and the University of Utah.

In late 1972, the ARPAnet was demonstrated at the International Conference on Computers in Washington, DC. This was the first public demonstration of packet switching.

TCP/IP Was Added
Over the next decade, ARPAnet spawned other networks, and in 1983 with more than 300 computers connected, its protocols were changed to TCP/IP. In that same year, the unclassified military MILNET network was split off from ARPAnet.

It Became the Internet
As TCP/IP and gateway technologies matured, more disparate networks were connected, and the ARPAnet became known as "the Internet" and "the Net." Starting in 1987, the National Science Foundation began developing a high-speed backbone between its supercomputer centers. Intermediate networks of regional ARPAnet sites were formed to hook into the backbone, and commercial as well as non-profit network service providers were formed to handle the operations. Over time, other federal agencies and organizations formed backbones that linked in.

The Big Shift
In 1995, commercial Internet service providers took control of the major backbones, and the Internet grew exponentially. See Internet and packet switching.

Humble Beginnings
Scrawled on this paper in 1969 were the first four nodes of the ARPANET. Little did they realize these four nodes would grow to millions. (Image courtesy of The Computer History Museum,
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References in periodicals archive ?
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency award will fund the development of unmanned aerial systems such as drones.
Immunotherapy company Inovio Pharmaceuticals (NasdaqGS:INO) revealed on Monday the receipt of an additional USD24m from the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) to support the Inovio-led development of multiple treatment and prevention approaches against Ebola virus.
ARLINGTON, VA -- The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency provided Northrop Grumman's Electronic Systems a $1.7 million contract to develop an ultra high capacity hybrid thermal ground plane to fight semiconductor-generated heat employed in electronic systems.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is researching how to use computers to process brain waves.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has announced plans to hold its third Grand Challenge competition on Nov.
And it would be foolhardy for us not to expect that to happen," Wallace told scientists at a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency conference.
Iris is to the future of satellite-based communications what Arpanet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) was to the creation of the internet in the Sixties.
Main of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in Arlington, Va., the advent of artificial muscles directly powered by high-energy fuels is "a very big deal."
Scientists from the US Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) plan to implant devices into blue sharks and release them into the ocean off the coast of Florida.
"We work better without top-down control; we work better cooperatively." Many assume that, because the Internet grew out of the Pentagon's Advanced Research Projects Agency, it could only have been created by government.
Currently, there is virtually no government funding for MFCs except for use in applications such as remote sensors, which are funded by the Navy, the Department of Energy, and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. "The current laboratory systems that we build cost way too much money for the amount of electricity we get back," Logan admits.
A multi-million dollar contract was recently awarded by Lithe Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (Darpa) to three separate companies for the development of a ducted-fan drone as part of the first phase of Darpa's Organic Air Vehicle Class II programme.

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