adverb

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adverb

An adverb refers to any element in a sentence used to modify a verb, adjective, another adverb, or even an entire clause.
Adverbs can be single words, phrases (called adverbial phrases), or entire clauses (called adverbial clauses).
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adverb:

see part of speechpart of speech,
in traditional English grammar, any one of about eight major classes of words, based on the parts of speech of ancient Greek and Latin. The parts of speech are noun, verb, adjective, adverb, interjection, preposition, conjunction, and pronoun.
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; adjectiveadjective,
English part of speech, one of the two that refer typically to attributes and together are called modifiers. The other kind of modifier is the adverb. Adjectives and adverbs are functionally distinct in that adjectives modify nouns and pronouns, while adverbs
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Adverb

 

a part of speech; a class of autonomous words that are uninflected or inflected only for degrees of comparison and are contrasted in this way to other autonomous words. As a rule, adverbs modify an action or quality and are subordinate to a verb or adjective.

In Russian, the adverbial modifier may coincide with case forms (with or without a preposition) of the noun (for example, On primchalsia begom/streloi, “He came running on the double/like an arrow”), to which it is often also genetically related (Russian peshkom, “on foot”; vverkh, “up, upward”; voochiiu, “with one’s own eyes”). Predicative adverbs function as the principal member of a sentence in which a subject and predicate are not expressed separately (stydno, “it is a shame”; nuzhno, “it is necessary”). In a number of languages (for example, Nenets), there is a transitional class of words with an incomplete declension (often called adverbs) between the noun and the adverb (for example, Nenets haqga, “whither,” “where to,” and hangad, “whence,” “wherefrom”).

Adverbs are classed according to whether they modify verbs (Russian, priglagol’nye narechiid) or adjectives (priad”ektivnye narechiia), and according to meaning, as adverbs of place, time, cause, and degree. Depending on the method of formation, adverbs may be grammatical, which are formed regularly (Russian adverbs in -o, -ski; English adverbs in -ly), and nongrammatical, which are morphologically irregular, or nonanalyzable (Russian ochen’, “very”; English “well”).

V. M. ZHIVOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
[The adjective hot follows the linking verb was, but modifies the noun saucepan.] However, problems arise when adjectives and adverbs have unexpected forms or are used in place of one another.
While most adverbs end in -ly, some do not, such as fast, hard, late, and straight.
In examining the deployment of the adverbs in the data, I follow Simon-Vandenbergen and Aijmer's (2007) treatment of modal adverbs of certainty.
As for the written genres, I have selected dissenting opinions written by the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States of America, since they are written by individual justices and as such, they contain numerous stance markers, with modal adverbs being no exception.
adverbs derived from adjectives by means of -lice: cwiculi:ce 'vigorously'
Share out the adverb cards: quietly, cautiously, noisily etc.
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A single notion, inclusive of both epistemic and evidential meanings, is useful for an analysis of English adverbs referring to the speaker's knowledge, because, as observed by Simon-Vandenbergen & Aijmer (2007: 31), they "always have a modal meaning", even those which indicate the source of knowledge.
* She is quickly Besides all this, Hengeveld (1997: 134) remarks that, whereas all adverbial classes tend to occupy fixed clausal positions, place and time adverbs occur more freely in the linear order of the clause.