Edessa

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Edessa

(ĭdĕs`ə), ancient city of Mesopotamia, on the site of modern Şanlıurfa Turkey. It emerged in the 4th cent. B.C. as Orrhoe, or Arrhoe, and was later named Edessa by Seleucus I of Syria. From c.137 B.C. it was the capital of the independent kingdom of Osroene. It later became a Roman city. There in A.D. 260, Shapur I of Persia defeated Emperor Valerian and took him prisoner. Edessa was a center of Christianity by the 3d cent. A.D. and became one of the major religious centers of the Byzantine Empire. The city fell to the Arabs in 639 and remained in Muslim hands until captured by the Crusaders in 1098. Baldwin (later Baldwin I of Jerusalem) became the ruler of Edessa, and when he became king, he turned it over to one of his cousins. The city, however, fell to the Muslims in 1144 and passed to the Ottoman Empire by 1637.

Edessa

1. an ancient city on the N edge of the Syrian plateau, founded as a Macedonian colony by Seleucus I: a centre of early Christianity
2. a market town in Greece: ancient capital of Macedonia. Pop.: 15 980 (latest est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The exhibition follows the mythological origins of the Temenids to the domination of Aegae as the seat of power of the Kingdom of Macedon.
All these objects help underline the roles of these powerful women as queens, princesses and high priestesses--but also as mothers, wives and sisters of the Macedonian elite, and offer a vivid portrayal of the female world at royal Aegae.
Although some objects in the exhibition were discovered during Andronikos' early digs at Aegae in the 1950s, the vast majority come from the last 20 years of excavation.
Archaeology has undoubtedly broadened our knowledge of ancient Macedonia and its capital Aegae more than any other field of research.
Through the surviving ancient literary, epigraphic, numismatic and archaeological evidence in the royal burials at Aegae and in neighbouring sites, the social construction of an elite identity emerges.
Research at sites in the vicinity of Aegae (such as Aiane and Archontiko, as well as further afield--around Thessaloniki, at Sindos and Hagia Paraskevi) and from as far north as Trebenista by Lake Ohrid, to as far east as Amphipolis, highlights a persistent pattern for elaborately furnished burials in the region, especially during the Archaic period (the period of 'state formation' for Macedonia).
Progressively the treatment of the dead at Aegae also became more elaborate.
The most elaborate funeral pyre known to us today is the one associated with the tomb of Philip II at Aegae (336 BC).
With its abundant banquet halls that could have hosted more than 400 guests simultaneously--the largest number for a Greek banquet known at the time--the palace at Aegae offers excellent evidence for the importance of the symposion in Macedonian court life.
2)--shown in the exhibition in a life-sized high-quality reproduction--and the marble sculpture of a hunter with his dog killing a wild boar, also from Aegae, vividly underline the agonistic spirit of the ancient Macedonians.
What stands out in Macedonian art is the high level of craftsmanship: in architecture (the palace at Aegae and the Macedonian tombs); in jewellery (Fig.
In the last 30 years, research at Aegae has also brought to light the theatre where Philip II was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter in 336 BC; sanctuaries, such as that of Eukleia (goddess of Fair Repute), where fine sculpture has come to light (Fig.