An aerial stem
system of plumular origin and an underground stem system of cotyledonary bud origin have been described, and the root system is completely adventitious and formed by the underground stem axis (Andreata and Menezes, 1999).
Even the aerial stem fragments can sprout and form new colonies (Praeger, 1934; Schaffner, 1931; Wagner & Hammitt, 1970).
palustre may produce more than 100 times more rhizome biomass than aerial stem biomass.
The following traits were observed (Andreata & Pereira 1990): number of hyaline cataphylls formed in the primary axis, characteristics of the cotyledonary sheath, number and shape of young leaves, aerial stem ramification, formation of underground stems and distinction among primary and adventitious roots, as well as their establishment.
Each aerial branch was originated from an axillary bud present on the base of the early aerial stem. Therefore, the development of the underground system began from the fifth eophyll, which can be verified by the presence of reduced knotty from the early development phases of the underground systems on one-year old plants (Fig.
Aerial stem cuttings did not root in the two treatments and after four months all cuttings were dead.
fluminensis was observed such correlation, because aerial stem cuttings that did not root presented small accumulation of starch grains, whereas this accumulation was significant in subterranean stem cuttings (Figure 1A and B).
Number of aerial stems per plant, number of leaves per plant, specific gravity of tubers and tuber dry mass did not show any significant change with change in K levels.
Total emergence percentages in each treatment was taken 30 days after planting likewise the data for number of aerial stems plant-1, number of leaves plant-1 and plant height were taken 60 days after planting, whereas, the observations number of tubers plant-1, tubers weight plant-1 and yield ha-1were obtained at the time of harvest by counting, weighing and subsequent calculations from randomly selected plants from each treatment.
Rhizomes with nodal buds; aerial stems
green with whorls of reduced, nonfunctional leaves; internodes hollow; strobili terminal.
Stems dimorphic; sterile (non-sporulating) stems green (chlorophyllus) with whorls of branches at node; fertile (sporulating) stems brownish (achlorophyllus) unbranched; dark bands not present above or below nodal sheaths; strobili ("cones") 1-3 cm long, stalks 2-5 cm long, apex rounded, maturing early spring before sterile stems; aerial stems annual, flexuous E.
Stems monomorphic: both fertile and sterile stems green and unbranched; dark bands present above and/or below nodal sheaths; strobili 0.5-1.5 cm long, stalks sessile to subsessile, apex mucronate, maturing late spring through summer; aerial stems evergreen, rigid E.