training

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training

(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.

Training

 

in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.

REFERENCES

See references under PRUNING FRUIT AND BERRY PLANTS.

B. P. ANZIN

References in periodicals archive ?
Table-2: Biochemical data at baseline and at 3-and 12-week supervised aerobic training follow-ups of obese women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
max] (B), and TOF (C) responses at baseline, 3-wks, 6-wks, and 8-wks of aerobic training.
Overall, professional dancers spent a great deal more time dancing, whether in class, rehearsal, or performance, compared to pre-professional students; and more Sr-Prof dancers performed cross training and aerobic training activities in comparison to the other groups.
Table 2: LOTCA scores in studied subjects following 12-week supervised aerobic training program (means [+ or -] SD).
2008) analysed the effects of an aerobic training on lactate and glucose blood levels in equines and found reduced blood lactate after training.
LTR-B: This submaximal exercise test on the LTR consisted of a 5-minute low intensity warm-up (Level I), 20 minutes of continuous exercise at an 'aerobic training intensity' and a 5-minute cool-down period (Level I) thus simulating a general aerobic training session.
These favorable from aerobic training on blood pressure were also reported by others18,19.
Entries cover such topics as aerobic training, the aging athlete, arthritis, asthma, baseball, blood pressure and exercise, boot camp, calories, cholesterol, cold therapy, dance, dehydration, energy drinks, exergaming, fatigue, fracture, hatha yoga, hula hooping, kinesiology, low back pain, martial arts, the muscular system, orthotics, pedometers, pilates, rock climbing, senior fitness, sitting, treadmills, weight loss, and zumba.
The aerobic training group improved in balance, mobility, and cardiovascular capacity, but did not have the same kind of cognitive or brain physiologic gains, she added.
Hickey et al reported a diminution of the concentration of leptin after 12 weeks of an aerobic training among young women.