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(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.



in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.




References in periodicals archive ?
Each patient in the aerobic training group was given a stair stepping machine and instructed to exercise five minutes per session, gradually increasing to 30 minutes per session.
Studies dealing with the effect of aerobic training on peak power in children have generally provided concordant results.
1993), to the best of our knowledge, no study attempted to understand the effects of dry land strength training combined with aerobic training in young competitive swimmers.
Failure to alter sympathoadrenal response to psychosocial stress following aerobic training.
These contradictory results might be explained by the criteria used for determination of the aerobic training status.
These effects also extend to young and elderly adults, with solid evidence for aerobic training benefiting executive functions, including multi-tasking, planning, and inhibition, and increasing the volume of brain structures important for memory.
Recent research has shown that resistance exercise (strength training) is as important as - and perhaps even more important than - aerobic training in diabetes management.
Prepare yourself by getting in shape, through both aerobic training and strength training.
It does not mean, however, that aerobic training should not be included in conjunction with RT.
and colleagues conducted the HART-D trial, which compared among 262 sedentary women and men with type 2 diabetes the effect of aerobic training, resistance training, and a combination of both on change in hemoglobin A1c levels.
Key words: Ventilatory threshold, mathematical modeling, ventilatory responses, aerobic training status.
Through mindfulness practice we can systematically develop and increase self-awareness, concentration, clarity of perception, and stress resilience, just as weight training increases muscle mass and aerobic training develops cardiovascular fitness.