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(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.




The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Obesity-related hormones and metabolic risk factors: A randomized trial of diet plus either strength or aerobic training versus diet alone in overweight participants.
Even though regular aerobic training offers cardioprotection, high-intensity method of training seems to be more beneficial when compared to the low-intensity method.
Effects of Different Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Frequencies on Muscle Power and Muscle Quality in Trained Elderly Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial Effects of Different Concurrent Resistance and Aerobic Training Frequencies on Muscle Power.
In addition to the resistance training protocol, the RT + AT performed additional aerobic training using a treadmill thrice weekly for the eight weeks beginning at an intensity of 55% maximum heart rate (H[R.sub.max]) for 20 minutes per session.
[32] have not found any significant changes in body composition after the 12-week practice of 2 models of training (treadmill aerobic training plus strength training and strength training followed by aerobic treadmill training) performed by active elderly women.
Additionally, only minimal studies to date exist that have utilised aerobic training and investigated FMD.
The two studies that analyzed TNF-a [22, 26] found no difference between the aerobic training group and the control group after the exercise protocol.
Future research should focus on investigating strategies to increase the tolerance to vigorous intensity aerobic training load without increasing the training side effects such as fatigue.
Demographic information regarding age, height, mass, years of dance training, years as a professional dancer, and whether the individual had a history of asthma, smoking, or participated in supplemental cross training or aerobic training was entered into a database in Excel.
"This is an aerobic training zone, a rate I haven't even come close to since being paralysed, while walking in the robot alone, without these interventions.
One study found that one hour per week of high-intensity aerobic training lowered RHR more efficiently than low-intensity aerobic activity.