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life in the presence of free oxygen. Aerobiosis is characteristic of the overwhelming majority of animals, plants, and microorganisms. All aerobic organisms, as distinguished from anaerobic organisms, obtain energy for their life activities through oxidative processes. Their enzyme systems are capable of oxidation-reduction reactions with molecular oxygen as the final acceptor of electrons. In the overwhelming majority of aerobes, respiration is accompanied by the absorption of molecular oxygen and the emission of carbon dioxide gas; some microorganisms do not carry oxidation to completion (for example, acetic-acid bacteria, some fungi, and others). The aerobic type of metabolism and energy exchange is more effective than anaerobiosis, since it ensures the generation of a larger quantity of energy per mole of substance.