instruments for making measurements of the air temperature, pressure, and humidity as well as of solar radiation, the altitudes of the upper and lower boundaries of the cloud cover, atmospheric turbulence, ozone and aerosol percentages, electrical field potential, and so on in free atmosphere at various heights. The principal aerological instruments are the radiosonde and the meteorograph. The radiosonde makes possible the measurement of temperature, pressure, and humidity, and the wind velocity and direction from trajectory data obtained with the aid of an aerological theodolite, a radio telescope, or radar. The meteorograph is an autographic apparatus that continuously records on a tape the air temperature, pressure, and humidity, and sometimes the airflow velocity. On aircraft, along with the meteorograph, other aerological instruments are carried when sounding the atmosphere, especially those for measuring the water content and microstructure of clouds, turbulence, icing conditions, and so on.
Aircraft, which, in effect, are flying aerological laboratories, are employed for measuring atmospheric parameters over large areas. Extensive use is made of the meteorological rocket which carries apparatus for the measurement of temperature, pressure, density, air composition, and so on, up to heights of 100 km or more.
Meteorological satellites occupy a special place in atmospheric studies of large areas because they help to obtain data on global cloud cover conditions, on storm and thunderstorm cells, on the temperature of the underlying areas (clouds and land, sea, and ocean surfaces), on the earth’s radiation balance, and so forth.
REFERENCESKalinovskii, A. B., and N. Z. Pinus. Aerologiia, part 1, Leningrad, 1961.
Maklakov, A. F., and V. S. Khakhalin. Sovremennaia tekhnika is sledovaniia atmosfery. Leningrad, 1964.
Pobiiakho, V. A. Aerologiia. Leningrad, 1962.
Kmito, A. A. Melody issledovaniia atmosfery s ispol’zovaniem raket i sputnikov. Leningrad, 1966.
S. I. NEPOMNIASHCHII