a scientific establishment in which experimental and theoretical work in the study of the atmosphere is done. The instruments used by an aerological observatory are lifted into the atmosphere by radiosondes, airplanes, balloons, rockets, and artificial satellites. In addition, the atmosphere is studied at aerological observatories by means of apparatus located on the ground. Atmospheric sounding is carried out with a radar beam, by optical (searchlight) sounding, and by acoustic and laser-beam soundings. Atmospheric processes at altitudes of up to 100 km or more, such as air currents and thermal conditions, clouds and precipitation, atmospheric turbulence, radiation balance, and artificial modification of clouds and fogs are studied.
The first aerological observatory in the USSR was the Pavlovsk Aerological Observatory near Leningrad, organized in 1902 and destroyed in 1941 during the siege of Leningrad. The largest observatory is the Central Aerological Observatory near Moscow. Among the oldest foreign aerological observatories are those in Lindenberg (German Democratic Republic), Kew (England), and Puy-de-Dôme (France).
V. D. RESHETOV