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Aetolia(ētōl`yə), region of ancient Greece, N of the Gulf of Corinth and the Gulf of Calydon, E of the Achelous River (separating it from Acarnania). Little is known of the early population of Aetolia, but later Aetolians, though they had coastal cities, were primarily an inland farming and pastoral people. They had famous shrines at Calydon (to Artemis) and at Thermum (to Apollo).
an ancient region in central Greece that was inhabited by Aetolian tribes. Aetolia was one of the most backward regions of the country, as it was surrounded and dissected by mountains and was also distant from the main cultural centers. It rose to political importance around the middle of the third century B.C., however, when the Aetolian League expanded beyond the boundaries of Aetolia; the federation included a number of poléis in northern and central Greece and the Peloponnesus. Aetolia was conquered by Rome in 189 B.C.