Johnston 158n and Maurach 1988: 33 suggest that this would need to be after the truce with the Aetolians dated to late 190/early 189; Gratwick 1982: 94 dates the play to 188/187, presumably in an attempt to match the play with the aftermath of the Aetolian truce and the final defeat of Antiochus in 187.
Two cities stand out in multiple references: Carthage, homeland of most of the principal cast (Carthaginienses is the first word of the plot explication at line 58), and Calydon, chief city of the Aetolian League, dramatic setting for this play and adopted city of the Carthaginian's nephew and daughters.
The Aetolians take the prominent role in the repulse of the Gauls before Delphi, and the divine elements of the Delphic tradition are conspicuously absent.
19) The provenance of Actes 21-24 suggests that the Aetolians issued a Panhellenic invitation: Athens, Chios, Tenos, and a Cycladic island.
6), the Aetolian leaders sent to Rome after the defeat at Callicinus/Callinicus in-171 (Livy 42.
Fulvius Nobilior's search for and punishment of the murderers of some Delphian envoys in 189/188, the Roman legates' verdict in 172, and, in 167, Paulus's investigation of the conduct of Aetolian leaders and his review of sentences passed by the Aetolian federal assembly, not to mention his execution of certain anti-Roman Greeks.
Thucydides implies that Demosthenes hesitated to advance on finding that the Aetolians knew of his plans and were gathering in force to oppose him.
A strong force under the Spartan Eurylochus, joined by the Aetolian army, now threatened Naupactus from the east; and it must have taken all his powers of persuasion to talk the disgruntled Acarnanians into sending 1000 hoplites to garrison the city.
Among other myths told at this festival are, first, that wine was brought from Aetolians
, who were then killed; the Aetolian
who had first planted a vine was Orestheus (often confused with Orestes); and second the story of Erigone's suicide by hanging.
lt;<Ancient International Law, the Aetolian
League and the Ritual of Surrender during the Roman Republic: A Constructivist View>>, The International History Review, 31: 2, 2009, pp.
5 and the Origins of the Aetolian
ethnos," Historia 37, pp.
In much the same way, the Aetolian
expedition of the following year is similar to but shorter than Xenophon's version (Hell.