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(ōrō`mō) or


(găl`ə), traditionally pastoral tribes who live in W and S Ethiopia and N Kenya. They number more than 25 million. About half are Muslim, about a third Ethiopian Orthodox, and about a sixth Protestant. Most live in Ethiopia, mainly in the ethnically based state of Oromia; they constitute roughly a third of all Ethiopians.

Originally from N Somalia, they later migrated to the region of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf). In the mid-16th cent. they began to move into the Ethiopian highlands. Never a united group, they were not a serious threat to the Ethiopian state. Their raids, however, were a considerable nuisance, and they were able to establish small states in many areas nominally controlled by the Ethiopian emperor. They were used as mercenary soldiers by the Ethiopians.

Oromo separatist guerrillas campaigned against Ethiopian rule from the 1990s without any significant results; they have also mounted occasional raids into Kenya. The Ethiopian government typically responded by repressing its opponents, occasionally prompting antigovernment demonstrations. Plans to transfer areas of Oromia neighboring Addis Ababa to the latter's administration led to protests beginning in 2014. The plan was abandoned in 2016, but protests continued in response to thousands of arrests and hundreds of deaths in a government crackdown; protests were also fueled by resentments against foreign-owned factories. In 2018 Ethiopia signed a peace agreement with the main Oromo separatist group, but a splinter faction continued its attacks, often focusing on non-Oromos.


See G. W. B. Huntingford, The Galla of Ethiopia (1955, repr. 1969); H. S. Lewis, A Galla Monarchy (1965).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The participants were youth, females and elders who speak Amharic and Afan Oromo languages.
The focus group discussion was made with participants using their mother tongue languages, which are Amharic and Afan Oromo languages, so as to get clear data for the study.
Item 2 asked the respondents if Amharic and Afan Oromo news programs provided credible information to them.
From the above data analysis, one can reasonably conclude that audiences of Amharic and Afan Oromo news programs have very good perceptions of the news programs transmitted from Jimma Fana FM 98.1 radio station.
These discussants in focus group discussions also said that Amharic and Afan Oromo news readers sometimes read news too fast.
And a discussant of the focus group discussion further said that audiences sometimes do not listen to the Amharic and Afan Oromo news programs, because of repeated electric power breakdown in Jimma town.
the Ahmaric and Afan Oromo news programs, Hello Fana program, Yebeteseb Mead program, Tibeb Fana program and the Gaddisa Jimmata news program broadcasted from the radio station.
* Ahmaric and Afan Oromo news programs transmit old news (lately) to their audiences.
Thus, based on the major findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations have been suggested: (1) Amharic and Afan Oromo news programs broadcasted from Jimma Fana FM 98.1 radio station should deliver current and fresh news to their audiences on time as much as possible; (2) Ahmaric and Afan Oromo news readers should read news in a medium speed so that the news listeners properly comprehend the news.