The virtual [Er.sub.2][O.sub.3] vascular "cast" (Figures 5(a) and 5(b)) showed complete perfusion from the abdominal aorta (i.e., the main feeding vessel) down to the 6th and 7th arterial branches (i.e., glomeruli afferent arterioles
A histopathological analysis reveals features of arteriolopathy (hyalinization of nephron afferent arterioles
), band-like interstitial fibrosis, and ischaemic atrophy of the renal tubules.
Quantitative analysis of afferent arterioles
was performed as previously described .
Other mechanisms of Amphotericin B induced nephrotoxicity suggested in the literature are direct toxic effects to the afferent arterioles
and tubules and direct renal and systemic vasoconstriction.
The vascular form of renal amyloidosis was considered when amyloid deposits were found predominantly on those vessels bigger than the afferent arteriole
or interlobular arteries.
The glomerular capillaries are supplied by the afferent arteriole
; blood then flows out of the glomerular capillaries via the efferent arteriole.
The renal vasculature is modulated by several vasoactive peptides including angiotensin II.[sup.24] The afferent arteriole
resistance will be reduced by inhibition of angiotensin II, or by reducing the sympathetic input.[sup.25] After removal of the renal tissue, GFR of the ipsilateral and/or contralateral kidney need to be increased to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, through adjustments in vasomotor control of the microvasculature.[sup.24] Following a nephrectomy, plasma volume will expand due to the decrease in renal excretory function.
Histologically, the glomus tumor is made up of an endothelium-lined vascular bed, which consists of an afferent arteriole
, an anastomotic vessel, and a venule surrounded by epithelioid glomus cells.
Blood enters the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole
and exits via the efferent arteriole.
Renin release is regulated by two intrarenal mechanisms, the afferent arteriole
baroreceptors and the macula densa cells, and one extra-renal mechanism, the SNS.
This high pressure is maintained up to the afferent arteriole
, the location of the first major point of vascular resistance.