African music

African music,

the music of the indigenous peoples of Africa. Sub-Saharan African music has as its distinguishing feature a rhythmic complexity common to no other region. Polyrhythmic counterpoint, wherein two or more locally independent attack patterns are superimposed, is realized by handclaps, xylophones, rattles, and a variety of tuned and nontuned drums. The remarkable aspect of African polyrhythm is the discernible coherence of the resultant rhythmic pattern. Pitch polyphony exists in the form of parallel intervals (generally thirds, fourths, and fifths), overlapping choral antiphony and solo-choral response, and occasional simultaneous independent melodies. In addition to voice, many wind and string instruments perform melodic functions. Common are bamboo flutes, ivory trumpets, and the one-string ground bow, which uses a hole in the ground as a resonator. During colonial times, European instruments such as saxophones, trumpets, and guitars were adopted by many African musicians; their sounds were integrated into the traditional patterns. Scale systems vary between regions but are generally diatonic. Music is highly functional in ethnic life, accompanying birth, marriage, hunting, and even political activities. Much music exists solely for entertainment, ranging from narrative songs to highly stylized musical theater. Similarities with other cultures, particularly Indian and Middle Eastern, can be ascribed primarily to the Islamic invasion (7th–11th cent.). See gospel musicgospel music,
American religious musical form that owes much of its origin to the Christian conversion of West Africans enslaved in the American South. Gospel music partly evolved from the songs slaves sang on plantations, notably work songs, and from the Protestant hymns they
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; jazzjazz,
the most significant form of musical expression of African-American culture and arguably the most outstanding contribution the United States has made to the art of music. Origins of Jazz

Jazz developed in the latter part of the 19th cent.
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; spiritualspiritual,
a religious folk song of American origin, particularly associated with African-American Protestants of the southern United States. The African-American spiritual, characterized by syncopation, polyrhythmic structure, and the pentatonic scale of five whole tones, is,
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.

Bibliography

See A. M. Jones, Studies in African Music (2 vol., 1959); R. Brandel, The Music of Central Africa (1961); F. Warren, The Music of Africa (1970); J. H. K. Nketia, The Music of Africa (1974) and Ethnomusicology and African Music (2006); F. Bebey, African Music (1972); W. Bender, Sweet Mother: Modern African Music (1991).

References in periodicals archive ?
Aware of the popularity of rhumba among African music lovers, Yondo has incorporated the beats in the song.
The juror encouraged more musicians, songwriters and producers to keep submitting and spreading the word of Afrima so they can celebrate together the progress and pinnacles of where African music is reaching.
However, in the allied tourism sector, covering socio-cultural music and entertainment, All Africa Music Awards (AFRIMA) has taken a leap to redefine, promote, encourage and celebrate African culture and talents through the AFRIMA big platform which has recognised many African music artistes in the last five years.
The choir also worked with actor/director Idris Elba, star of Mandela: Long Road To Freedom, who recruited them for an album celebrating South African music, recorded in tribute to Nelson Mandela.
M2 PRESSWIRE-August 9, 2019-: WAHALAROOM PARTNERS WITH THE TOP AFROBEATS MUSIC FESTIVAL TO MAKE INROADS INTO THE GROWING AFRICAN MUSIC MARKET.
Three Doha-based DJs will be performing alongside the celebrated artiste and will play the best African music for the audience.
But before that, he will be releasing a string of hot bangers featuring several African music acts.
He was the first African Director at the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, and received awards including the Cowell Award of the African Music Society, Companion of the Order of Star of Ghana, Grand Medal of the Government of Ghana, and the Africanist Award of the African Studies Association of the USA for life long devotion to African Studies.
Nketia states "The relationship between African and Afro-American music is dynamic and unbroken at the conceptual level in spite of the differences in materials to which these concepts are applied." (1) This statement articulates the importance of African music in the creation of African American music, at its inception, and continued development of African American music in modern times.
The band, he noted, also transcended two decades to remain relevant in terms of messaging and music and "we are welcoming them to Qatar." "We think that we need to begin bringing more African music to Qatar because Qatar is known as a melting pot of all nations (and cultures), and (there are) a lot of Africans from Kenya, Nigeria, and Ethiopia, etc," Moosa said.
Allingham, who had been serving as an archive manager for over 10 years, said he fell in love with South African music in the 70s, where his archive work into African township and Afrikaans music helped to revive its commercial mainstream and made it more profitable.
Africa" The band was formed in 2012, with their primary aim being to spread and encourage the heritage of African music, especially in relation to Egypt, and so uses many musical influences from various African cultures.

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