Agent Orange


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Agent Orange,

herbicideherbicide
, chemical compound that kills plants or inhibits their normal growth. A herbicide in a particular formulation and application can be described as selective or nonselective.
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 used by U.S. forces during the Vietnam WarVietnam War,
conflict in Southeast Asia, primarily fought in South Vietnam between government forces aided by the United States and guerrilla forces aided by North Vietnam. The war began soon after the Geneva Conference provisionally divided (1954) Vietnam at 17° N lat.
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 to expose enemy guerrilla forces in forested areas. Agent Orange contains varying amounts of dioxin. Exposure to the defoliant has been linked with chemical acne, non-Hodgkin's lymphomalymphoma, non-Hodgkin's,
any cancer of the lymphoid tissue (see lymphatic system) in which the Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of Hodgkin's disease (the other category of lymphoma) are not present.
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, Hodgkin's diseaseHodgkin's disease,
a type of cancer of the lymphatic system. First identified in 1832 in England by Thomas Hodgkin, it is a type of malignant lymphoma. Incidence peaks in young adults and the elderly.
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, soft-tissue sarcomasarcoma
, highly malignant tumor arising in connective- and muscle-cell tissue. It is the result of oncogenes (the cancer causing genes of some viruses) and proto-oncogenes (cancer causing genes in human cells). It may affect bone, cartilage, blood vessels, lymph nodes, and skin.
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, and hairy-cell leukemialeukemia
, cancerous disorder of the blood-forming tissues (bone marrow, lymphatics, liver, spleen) characterized by excessive production of immature or mature leukocytes (white blood cells; see blood) and consequently a crowding-out of red blood cells and platelets.
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. Many soldiers were exposed to Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Afflicted veterans brought a class-action suit against manufacturers of Agent Orange, which was settled out of court by the establishment of a fund to compensate them and their families for any disabilities. That settlement, however, covered only those who became ill by 1994 and, as a result of a 2003 Supreme Court decision, veterans who became ill after 1994 can sue the herbicide's manufacturers. The herbicide has also been blamed for a significantly higher than normal rate of birth defects in areas of Vietnam that were sprayed; tests have shown persistent high levels of dioxin in the local environment and in people living there. In 2005 a class action lawsuit in the United States against manufacturers by Vietnamese citizens was unsuccessful. Since 2006 the United States and Vietnam have worked together on problems in Vietnam resulting from the herbicide's use and storage. Some 800,000 Vietnamese have recieved assistance because of Agent Orange exposure.
References in periodicals archive ?
Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit overturned a sixteen-year-old VA policy that denied benefits to thousands of Navy veterans exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War.
At the dawn of the new millennium, nationwide campaigns to raise awareness about the problem of Agent Orange also reached A Luoi Valley.
Chemical companies making Agent Orange opted for maximum return despite in-house memos that a safer product could be made for a slight reduction in profits.
Agent Orange includes a harmful chemical contaminant called dioxin.
Agent Orange is the combination of the code names for Herbicide Orange and Agent LNX - one of the herbicides and defoliants used as part of its chemical warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand.
Mitchell's work has centred on allegations that Agent Orange, the defoliant used by US forces to rob Vietcong fighters of jungle cover and crops, is a problem of today, particularly in Okinawa, which was a major supply hub for the US military in the Vietnam con-flict.
The book is at its best in its first three chapters, describing the discovery, development and deployment of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)--'Agent Orange' in combination --as a weapon of war.
Mr O'Dwyer said it was quite likely Mr Bui's exposure to Agent Orange had led to his rare cancer.
This summer, 22 steel barrels were discovered under a municipal football pitch in Okinawa with claims that traces of Agent Orange were found in some of the chemicals inside.
The findings suggest that history of exposure to Agent Orange should be incorporated into prostate screening decisions for veterans.
Key Words: Agent Orange cancer risks, prostate cancer, prostate dysplasia, herbicide exposure-related cancers, Vietnam veterans' cancer risks, polyphenon.
Jo Haigh, partner at fds Corporate Finance, completed the sales of Agent Orange Environmental Ltd to Jonathan Smith and Graeme Scott, owners of national support services company Office and General.