Agglutinative Languages

Agglutinative Languages

 

languages whose characteristic morphological feature is word formation and word change through agglutination.

Among the agglutinative languages are the Turkic languages; the Finno-Ugric languages; the Tungus-Manchurian, Korean, and Japanese languages; some of the American Indian languages; and a number of African languages. Agglutinative languages are contrasted to flective or flectional languages, although agglutinative languages also exhibit traits of flection (for example, Finnish and Udmurt), while flective languages make some use of agglutination.

References in periodicals archive ?
Oamenii sentimentali sint fiinte dificile" (footnote 156--"One celebrated American writer on culture and language delivered himself of the dictum that, estimable as the speakers of agglutinative languages might be, it was nevertheless a crime for an inflecting woman to marry an agglutinating man...
As for the three agglutinative languages, Hungarian, Basque and Georgian, each has its preferred CA-frame, i.e.
Turkish is a good example of agglutinative languages whereas English is a nonagglutinative one.
Suffixation is a widely used word formation in Old Turkic as well as in modern Turkic languages as agglutinative languages. The second main element in suffixal derivations is--word-forming suffixes.
Although rule-based models are simple and exhibit decent performance, they are not appropriate for synthetic languages (i.e., agglutinative languages) with high morpheme-per-word ratios (e.g., Korean, Japanese, and Turkish) because various linguistic problems occur in separating a word into a sequence of morphemes.
At present, there are several databases for computing most relevant psycholinguistic statistics in alphabetic and non agglutinative languages (for English, see Davis, 2005; for Spanish, see Davis & Perea, 2005).
The finite state [13] and two-level morphology [14] approach has been used successfully in a broad number of NLP applications both non-concatenated language like Arabic [15] and agglutinative languages. Among the last it can be noted also an automatic morphological analysis of Basque [16], free morphological analyzer for Turkish [17], computer morphological analysis of Turkmen language [18], finite state approach to the Kazakh language [19], and many others.
Examples of the agglutinative languages are Turk and the similar ones--Kazakh, Kyrgyz, etc., Hungarian.
(9) a) Deverbatives from verbs of bantu origin verb noun deverbatising vowel Shinda 'win' mshindi 'winner' {-i} Mshinde 'looser' {-e} Tua 'land' kituo 'station' {-o} Tulia 'be calm' mtulivu 'calm person' {-u} Pata 'get' pato 'profit' {-o} -nywa 'drink' kinywax 'mouth' {-a} b) Deverbatives from verbs of non-bantu origin tubu 'repent' toba 'repentance' u> (xi) {-a} samehe 'forgive' msamaha 'forgiveness' e> {-a} jadili 'discuss' mjadala 'discussion' i > {-a} Sali 'pray' sala 'prayer' i > {-a} Safiri 'travel' msafara xii 'procession' i > {-a} Abiri 'travel' abiria 'traveler' i+ (xiii) {-a} In all agglutinative languages, agents, datives and objects are marked and grammaticalised by bound morphs.
Similarity consists in highly developed prefixation and suffixation but in Zulu both are used in a way typical for agglutinative languages, this certainly holds for noun prefixes.
To provide an example, whereas English speakers rarely produce new words they have never used before, so that the words they do use may be very likely stored as wholes in the mental lexicon, speakers of agglutinative languages (such as Turkish, for example) have to construct words anew when producing language.
Hannu Panu Aukusti Hakola: 1000 Duraljan Etyma: An Extended Study in the Lexical Similarities in the Major Agglutinative Languages. Kuopio: H.P.A.