Agricultural Biology

Agricultural Biology


a division of experimental biology that studies methods for increasing the productivity of cultured plants, domestic animals, and beneficial microorganisms. The requirements and practice of agriculture led to the development of agricultural biology from related biological and agricultural sciences. Agricultural biology draws from these sciences and incorporates advances in genetics, physiology, biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular biology.

Agricultural biology is concerned with the discovery of the genetic, physiological, and biochemical bases of heterosis in agricultural plants and animals, the selection of parental pairs during hybridization, the use of polyploidic plants, and the study of artificial mutagenesis. It also deals with the development of the genetic, physiological, and biochemical bases of pathogenesis and immunity in plants and animals. Detailed studies are made on the feeding of farm animals and on the biochemical and physiological processes of lactation and protein and fat synthesis. These studies are used in developing and improving feed standards and rations, systems of keeping animals, meat and milk productivity, and the quality and amount of wool gathered. Agricultural biology is also concerned with improving chemical and biological methods for combating plant and animal diseases and pests and raising efficiency in the use of solar energy by agricultural plants during photosynthesis. For example, models for optimal planting are investigated. Microorganisms are studied as producers of a series of important organic compounds, for example, amino acids, proteins, antibiotics, and enzymes. Soil microorganisms and intestinal microflora are also studied.

Studies in agricultural biology are coordinated and directed by the V. I. Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences and a series of institutes under the academy’s administration. Agricultural biology is discussed in the journal Sel’sko-khoziaistvennaia biologiia (Agricultural Biology, published since 1966) and in many agricultural and biological journals, for example, Selektsiia i semenovodstvo (Selection and Seed Growing, published since 1929), Genetika (Genetics, published since 1965), and Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia (Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology, published since 1965).


References in periodicals archive ?
Leproust is disrupting the current process of gene synthesis to enable the exponential growth of synthetic biology applications in multiple fields including medicine, agricultural biology and industrial chemicals.
At the age of 23, Ted began his career as the golf course superintendent at Winged Foot Golf Club in New York after studying agricultural biology at McGill University and turfgrass management at the University of Massachusetts.
Industrial chemical manufacturers, drug makers, diagnostic companies and agricultural biology companies can all use synthetic DNA to help them research or directly create products.
Greg Lucier, Chairman/CEO of California-based Life Technologies, addressed how technologies the company has introduced for sequencing the human genome can also be used to study and advance agricultural biology.
Gene Expression, cancer diagnostics & treatments, drug discovery, genetics (DNA sequencing by hybridization, reverse genetics, functional genomics and genomic mismatch scanning, gene mapping, diagnosis), SNP analysis, screening & monitoring of patient data during clinical trials, proteomics, toxicogenomics, microbial genotyping, agricultural biology, and environmental control.
SIR - In his recent letter to The Western Mail Mike German maintains the view that the National Institute of Agricultural Biology report on GM contamination which has caused such a fuss within the Assembly was of no great significance.
McPhail, who graduated from California Polytechnic State University, Pomona, in 1971 with a degree in agricultural biology, plans to put up a good fight for the career where he planted his roots decades ago.
According to Bruce Holm, the chief financial officer of Agra Quest, an agricultural biology company that made a pitch at a recent fair, "After the presentation, we were swarmed by interested potential investors.
Synthetic Genomics is making advancements in various scientific applications, such as vaccine development, agricultural biology, organ transplantation, and alternative food, energy and chemical source development.
The synthetic promoters produced by Synpromics will have applications in life science R&D, biologics production, novel diagnostics, gene therapy, and agricultural biology.
As the costs and time to sequence genomes collapse, science is taking the guesswork out of health care and agricultural biology.
Its main mission is to increase and accelerate usage of Cellectis' proprietary technology in agricultural biology, broaden the company's platform to attract new and expanded licensing opportunities and explore the development of proprietary traits for selected applications.

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