Surface Runoff

(redirected from Agricultural runoff)
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surface runoff

[′sər·fəs ′rən‚ȯf]
(hydrology)
Runoff that moves over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Surface runoff

The precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point-source pollutants in rivers, streams and lakes.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Surface Runoff

 

movement of water across the earth’s surface owing to the force of gravity. A distinction is made between sheet flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is made up of rain and meltwater and moves down slopes, without fixed channels. Channel flow occurs in definite linear directions, in the channels of rivers and bottoms of ravines and gulleys. Subterranean water and groundwater sometimes also form part of channel flow.

Surface runoff is described by the volume of water flowing across a surface (the modulus of runoff) and is expressed either as l/sec/km2 or as a depth in mm per year or some other period. In the USSR, the lowest modulus of runoff— in the arid regions of the Middle Asian plain— is 0–1 l/sec/km2, while the highest goes up to 125 l/sec/km2, in the mountains of the Western Caucasus. Surface runoff varies over time. The average annual modulus of runoff in the Vorskla River basin is 2.1 l/sec/km2, but the maximum figure, during spring high water, is 220 l/sec/km2. In the Primor’e, where the modulus of average runoff is 8-15 l/sec/km2, the maximum modulus of direct runoff reaches 600–700 l/sec/km2, and sometimes even more than 1,000 l/sec/km2.

K. G. TIKHOTSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
'Nutrients, flowing down into our oceans from sources such as agricultural runoff, sewage and waste water discharges, create 'dead zones' where fish and other marine life cannot thrive.
These elevated values ofFe, Pb and Cd can be attributed to the weathering and erosion of rocks, extensive use ofpesticides and fertilizers, urban and agricultural runoff and direct disposal ofdomestic sewerage system into the watershed channels and Punjkora River ofthe study area.
Specially designed recirculating hydroponic methods save land, save water, eliminate agricultural runoff and chemical pesticides, and offer the benefits of efficient, high-yield, local, year-round food production.
The October briefing focused on agricultural runoff and water quality.
Agricultural intensification, leading to loss of habitat heterogeneity, effects of agrochemicals on wild species, pollution by agricultural runoff is threatening the species as well as their habitats, it added.
In the Chesapeake Bay watershed cleanup (the only other large scale watershed now in the process of an intense restoration effort), new standards and rules for agricultural runoff have been the focus of both controversy and litigation.
More than 20 million people depend upon the Great Lakes for their primary drinking water supply, but scientists and environmentalists agree that the lakes' ecosystems have long been upset by wastewater discharges and agricultural runoff.
The period from 2002/2003 -- 2011/2012 witnessed a rise in recycled water from agricultural runoff, from 4.4bn cubic metres to 9.2bn cubic metres, or an increase of 109.1%.
PhD thesis "Analysis of the water quality concerning nutrients in the agricultural runoff".
Agricultural runoff contains chemicals that infiltrate groundwater and pollute rivers, streams and larger bodies of water.
Images of the Cuyahoga River burning in the 1960s have been replaced with headlines that read "Farm Runoff in Mississippi River Floodwater Fuels Dead Zone in Gulf"; "Manure, Fertilizer Part of Chesapeake's Problem"; or "Efforts to Address Agricultural Runoff Fail to Improve Iowa's Lakes." (Marder, 2011; Shogren, 2009; Peterka, 2013).
coli populations in agricultural runoff," Ibekwe says.

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