Surface Runoff

(redirected from Agricultural runoff)
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surface runoff

[′sər·fəs ′rən‚ȯf]
(hydrology)
Runoff that moves over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream.

Surface runoff

The precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point-source pollutants in rivers, streams and lakes.

Surface Runoff

 

movement of water across the earth’s surface owing to the force of gravity. A distinction is made between sheet flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is made up of rain and meltwater and moves down slopes, without fixed channels. Channel flow occurs in definite linear directions, in the channels of rivers and bottoms of ravines and gulleys. Subterranean water and groundwater sometimes also form part of channel flow.

Surface runoff is described by the volume of water flowing across a surface (the modulus of runoff) and is expressed either as l/sec/km2 or as a depth in mm per year or some other period. In the USSR, the lowest modulus of runoff— in the arid regions of the Middle Asian plain— is 0–1 l/sec/km2, while the highest goes up to 125 l/sec/km2, in the mountains of the Western Caucasus. Surface runoff varies over time. The average annual modulus of runoff in the Vorskla River basin is 2.1 l/sec/km2, but the maximum figure, during spring high water, is 220 l/sec/km2. In the Primor’e, where the modulus of average runoff is 8-15 l/sec/km2, the maximum modulus of direct runoff reaches 600–700 l/sec/km2, and sometimes even more than 1,000 l/sec/km2.

K. G. TIKHOTSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Contract notice: Achievement Of Development Fight Against Floods By Agricultural Runoff In The Territory Of Valenciennes Mtropole: Watershed: Current St Martin, Rhonelle, Aunelle.
A large portion of the phosphorus in the watershed is attributed to agricultural runoff from land-applied manure.
Rainfall in the region averages less than three inches per year and inflow is comprised primarily of agricultural runoff with smaller contributions from the New, Alamo, and Whitewater rivers.
the parking Rance, junctions and adjoining roads and create a buried basin participate in the fight against agricultural runoff in the municipality of Genay.
The river also collects waste matter from sugar refineries, distilleries, pulp and paper mills, and tanneries, apart from contaminated agricultural runoff from the rice bowl of Northern India.
The report stated that the major pollution sources that caused the deficiency of oxygen were household wastewater, industrial effluent, agricultural runoff, and solid waste.
Major pollution sources include household wastewater, industrial effluent, agricultural runoff and solid waste.
Sources include agricultural runoff, unpermitted urban runoff, abandoned mine drainage, failing onsite disposal systems, and pollution caused by changes to natural stream channels.
Due to surface and/or subsurface agricultural runoff, these compounds have subsequently found their way into the bay.
Nutrients, flowing down into our oceans from sources such as agricultural runoff, sewage and waste water discharges, create 'dead zones' where fish and other marine life cannot thrive.
These elevated values ofFe, Pb and Cd can be attributed to the weathering and erosion of rocks, extensive use ofpesticides and fertilizers, urban and agricultural runoff and direct disposal ofdomestic sewerage system into the watershed channels and Punjkora River ofthe study area.

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