Surface Runoff

(redirected from Agricultural runoff)
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surface runoff

[′sər·fəs ′rən‚ȯf]
Runoff that moves over the soil surface to the nearest surface stream.

Surface runoff

The precipitation, snow melt, or irrigation water in excess of what can infiltrate the soil surface and be stored in small surface depressions; a major transporter of non-point-source pollutants in rivers, streams and lakes.

Surface Runoff


movement of water across the earth’s surface owing to the force of gravity. A distinction is made between sheet flow and channel flow. Sheet flow is made up of rain and meltwater and moves down slopes, without fixed channels. Channel flow occurs in definite linear directions, in the channels of rivers and bottoms of ravines and gulleys. Subterranean water and groundwater sometimes also form part of channel flow.

Surface runoff is described by the volume of water flowing across a surface (the modulus of runoff) and is expressed either as l/sec/km2 or as a depth in mm per year or some other period. In the USSR, the lowest modulus of runoff— in the arid regions of the Middle Asian plain— is 0–1 l/sec/km2, while the highest goes up to 125 l/sec/km2, in the mountains of the Western Caucasus. Surface runoff varies over time. The average annual modulus of runoff in the Vorskla River basin is 2.1 l/sec/km2, but the maximum figure, during spring high water, is 220 l/sec/km2. In the Primor’e, where the modulus of average runoff is 8-15 l/sec/km2, the maximum modulus of direct runoff reaches 600–700 l/sec/km2, and sometimes even more than 1,000 l/sec/km2.


References in periodicals archive ?
Among the stressors analyzed were the effects of pollution, dams and reservoirs, water overuse, agricultural runoff, loss of wetlands and introduction of invasive species.
However, agricultural runoff may include a variety of chemicals, including pesticides, animal wastes, and fertilizers, that could threaten water quality.
Specific objectives of the research reported here include evaluation of available information on the occurrence and analysis of PhACs in water sources, selection of PhACs that are likely to be detectable in municipal wastewater effluent and agricultural runoff, development of analytical methods for quantifying PhACs in water, analysis of samples from sites, and assessment of the ability of wastewater treatment plants, treatment wetlands, and soil aquifer treatment systems to remove PhACs.
Waste treatment facilities in Europe and North America are using new technologies to reduce agricultural runoff.
A new US presidential commission aims to use marine sciences to mold policy on inland issues, such as agricultural runoff and pesticide use.
The state restoration fund has invested $800 million over 6 years to buy land and develop marshes that filter agricultural runoff before it reaches the Everglades.
Included is work on the effect of agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, losses from intensively grazed pastures, and the role of wetlands and streambank vegetation in removing nitrogen from agricultural runoff.
Maryland landowners may voluntarily enroll up to 100,000 acres of environmentally sensitive land along streams and waterways to restore wetlands, plant forest and grass buffers, and protect the Bay from agricultural runoff.
Today, the water that gives the sea its biological diversity comes from agricultural runoff - the same source of the salts and other contaminants that have put it into a perpetual death throe.
These nutrients can enter water bodies by several means, such as through wastewater discharge or agricultural runoff.
the parking Rance, junctions and adjoining roads and create a buried basin participate in the fight against agricultural runoff in the municipality of Genay.
Everything from agricultural runoff, animal and human waste, lawn fertilizer and detergents play a role, adding to the nutrient loads that adversely affect water quality all along the river's length and make it exceedingly difficulty to meet water quality standards by the time measurements are made at the end of the line in Rhode Island.

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