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Agra

(ä`grə, ăg`rə), former province, N central India. The presidency, or province, of Agra was created in 1833 when the British partitioned the Bengal presidency. In 1836, Agra was renamed the North West Province. In 1877, Agra and Oudh were placed under one administrator, and in 1902 they became the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. The city of Agra (1991 pop. 948,063), Uttar Pradesh state, is on the Yamuna River. An important rail and air junction, commercial center, and a district administrative headquarters, it is noted for shoes, glass products, handicrafts, carpets, and historic architecture. The present city was established (1566) by AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
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 and was long a MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 capital. Under Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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 (1628–58), the magnificent Taj MahalTaj Mahal
, mausoleum, Agra, Uttar Pradesh state, N India, on the Yamuna River. It is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian Islamic architecture.
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 was built. Other notable historic buildings are Akbar's fort, the Pearl Mosque, and the Great Mosque (within the fort). Excavation and restoration of the Moonlight Gardens began in the 1990s. Agra's importance diminished after the court moved to Delhi in 1658. During the decline of the Mughal empire, the city frequently changed rulers until 1803, when it was annexed by the British. From 1836 to 1858 it was the capital of the North West Province. Agra Univ. is in the city.

Agra

 

a city in northern India in Uttar Pradesh state, on the Jumna River (the main tributary of the Ganges). With a population of 543,400 (1967), it is a transportation junction and center of the handicraft industry. There is production of leather and footwear, cotton fabrics, and marble and metal articles; the city has spinning mills and a university.

The fortress of Agra apparently came into existence in the 15th century; the city arose on the left bank of the Jumna in the early 16th century. In 1526 the city was captured by Baber, who made it his capital. In the 1560’s, Akbar built the Agra fortress on the right bank of the Jumna River, and it became the residence for the court of the Great Moguls. In 1803 the city was captured by the British colonialists. In 1857, Agra was one of the centers of the Great National Uprising.

The most brilliant examples of the Mogul architecture of India were built in Agra: Agra Fort (red sandstone, 1564–74), with the Jahangiri Palace (red sandstone, 1570), Pearl Mosque (white marble, 1646–53), Divan-i-Am (begun in 1627), and Divan-i-Khas (1637); the Taj Mahal; the tomb of Itimad-ud-Daula (white marble, 1622–28); and the Cathedral Mosque (red sandstone, 1648). Agra is the center of folk carving and marble inlay. In Sikandra, 9 km from Agra, is the mausoleum of Akbar (red sandstone, 1612–13).

REFERENCE

Havell, E. B. A Handbook to Agra and the Taj . . ., 2nd ed. Calcutta-Simla, 1924.

Agra

a city in N India, in W Uttar Pradesh on the Jumna River: a capital of the Mogul empire until 1658; famous for its Mogul architecture, esp the Taj Mahal. Pop.: 1 259 979 (2001)
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