Agustín De Itúrbide
Itúrbide, Agustín De
Born Sept. 27, 1783, in Valladolid, now Morelia; died July 19, 1824, in Padilla. Mexican statesman and military figure. Son of a Spanish nobleman.
Itúrbide joined the Spanish Army in 1798 and was promoted to the rank of colonel. He participated in the suppression of the national liberation movement that broke out in Mexico in 1810 and conducted cruel reprisals against Mexican patriots. During the Spanish revolution of 1820–23, Iturbide, reflecting the interests of Mexican landowners, clergy, and military, headed a military action for separation from Spain. On May 19, 1822, Iturbide proclaimed himself emperor under the name Agustin I and established a terrorist regime. The complete financial bankruptcy of the Iturbide government and the siding of the army with the republicans led to the fall of the Itúrbide empire, and in March 1823, Itúrbide abdicated and fled to Europe. In 1824 he returned illegally to Mexico and was captured and shot.