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(äh mə dē` yə), a contemporary messianic movement founded (1899) by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1839–1908), b. Qadiyan, the Punjab. His Barahin-i Ahmadiyya, which he began to publish in 1880, was well received by his Islamic community. In 1889, he announced that he had received a divine revelation authorizing him to accept the baya, the allegiance of the faithful; he later also declared himself the MahdiMahdi
[Arab.,=he who is divinely guided], in Sunni Islam, the restorer of the faith. He will appear at the end of time to restore justice on earth and establish universal Islam. The Mahdi will be preceded by al-Dajjal, a Muslim antichrist, who will be slain by Jesus.
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 and the promised Messiah (masih) of Islam (1891). His doctrine, incorporating Indian, Sufi, Islamic, and Western elements, attempted to revitalize Islam in the face of the British raj, Protestant Christianity, and resurgent Hinduism.

After his death, his followers elected Mawlana Nur ad-Din as his successor. Nur ad-Din died in 1914, and the community split into two branches. The majority remained in Qadiyan and recognized Ghulam Ahmad as prophet (nabi). The basic belief held by the Qadiyani community was and is that it is the sole embodiment of "True Islam." The founder's son, Hadhrat Mirza Bashir ad-Din Mahmud Ahmad (1889–1965), was chosen as Khalifatul-Masih [caliph of the Messiah] by the Qadiyani branch, known today as the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam (jamaat-i ahmadiyya). His half-century of leadership shaped the movement, operating after 1947 out of the city of Rabwah (which they founded and gave a Qur'anically inspired name) in Pakistan and administering a network of schools and hospitals. His successors have been chosen from among Ghulam Ahmad's descendants; the leader of the movement (since 2003) is Mirza Masroor Ahmad (b. 1950).

The other branch, less willing to distinguish itself from mainstream Islam, recognized Ghulam Ahmad as a reformer (mujaddid) and established what came to be known as the ahmadiyya anjuman ishaat-i Islam movement in Lahore, Pakistan, also known as the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement. Both branches engage in energetic missionary activity in Nigeria, Kenya, Indonesia, and the Indian subcontinent.

Orthodox Islam has never accepted Ghulam Ahmad's visions, and Ahmadis in Pakistan have faced religious and political attacks to the extent that they have been declared apostate and non-Muslim by the country's religious and political elite. A 1974 Pakistani law defined Ahmadis as non-Muslims. A 1984 Pakistani government decree banned the use of Islamic forms of worship by Ahmadis, and the fourth Khalifatul-Masih went into exile in London until his death in 2003. Ahmadis have also suffered from discrimination in other Islamic nations. The most widely cited figure for membership in the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam is 10 million, although this figure dates to the 1980s; current official movement figures are significantly higher.


See H. J. Fisher, Ahmadiyyah (1963); S. Lavan, The Ahmadiyyah Movement (1974); Y. Friedman, Prophecy Continuous (1989).

References in periodicals archive ?
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Association continues to promote understanding and tolerance in order to build a healthy and harmonious society.
Head teachers and religious education teachers, representatives from community organisations and charity workers will be among the delegates, said the Cardiff Ahmadiyya Muslim Association which is organising the event at the Park Inn Hotel, Llanedeyrn.
Rafiq Hayat, National President of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community UK, said:
Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad - Head of the Worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community) THE 49th JALSA SALANA (ANNUAL CONVENTION) This was held in Hampshire on 21-23 August and organised by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community UK.
Speaking on the announcement of the event, Rafiq Hayat , National President of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Association UK said:
LAHORE -- An AntiTerrorism Court on Saturday awarded death sentence to two militants of a banned outfit in account of attacking Ahmadiyya community at their worship place in 2010.
THE Lord Mayor of Coventry joined the Ahmadiyya Muslim Association to call for peace within different communities.
We are all members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community which has recently celebrated 100 years in Britain.
Mehmud, 31, is from Fitchburg and is the regional youth leader of the Ahmadiyya Muslims chapters in Fitchburg, Boston, Hartford and Albany, N.
Islamabad, June 12 ( ANI ): The Ahmadiyya community in Pakistan is discriminated against even during death.
At the trial held in May, a lawyer from Canada confirmed that Ahmadiyya organization is prohibited in Canada.
Vice President Jusuf Kalla said that the Ahmadiyya sect can continue in Indonesia and its followers were allowed to worship in their homes and mosques, but they must not preach or try to convert others, "No, they (the government) have no plan to ban Ahmadiyya," provided it follows the law, Kalla said.