An estimation process was described in this paper for the diagnostics of the air fuel ratio
imbalance between the cylinders of an engine.
By continuously monitoring any excess air levels and with clever usage of the data provided, the air fuel ratio
can be automatically adjusted to achieve optimum combustion.
From the figure it can be seen that, air fuel ratio
values of fish oil biodiesel and its diesel blends are slightly less than diesel.
Volume of gas produced generally decreased with increase in equivalence ratio but the variation between them dependent upon the equivalence ratio and air fuel ratio
achieved in the gasifier.
He diagnosed the lack of an effective air fuel ratio
control algorithm as a primary driver for the detonation and noted that there were issues with the cooling water system allowing an inversion of the oil and water inlet temperatures.
The three-way catalytic converter that simultaneously oxidizes excess levels of exhaust carbon monoxide (CO) and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) and reduces nitric oxides (N[O.sub.x]) becomes ineffective if the rich-burn engine air fuel ratio
differs by more than 1% from the stoichiometric value.
Previous study has already shown that stoichiometric operation is achievable with gasoline/PODE, thus during the experiments, the excess air fuel ratio
is maintained close to unity through intake pressure and EGR rate control, which enables the possibility to adopt the conventional three-way catalyst aftertreatment for further emission reduction .
As well as ensuring minimum gas pollution and maximum fuel economy, the "closed loop" air fuel ratio
control helps to minimise maintenance.
"We specified the Caterpillar 3412 TAA stoichiometric engine and installed a Miratech catalyst system with air fuel ratio
The systems include torque control, load step control, ignition timing control, air fuel ratio
, speed set-point control, and sequencing and protection.
To measure and control the air fuel ratio
in real time, both the ETAS LA4 lambda meter and the Horiba MEXA 7100-DEGR emissions bench are used.
The closed loop emissions control system for CNG gen-sets includes a three-way catalytic converter/muffler and the NEES-210 control system which incorporates an oxygen sensor, solenoid and the air fuel ratio