Aix-en-Provence

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Aix-en-Provence

(ĕk-säN-prôväNs`), city (1990 pop. 126,854), Bouches-du-Rhône dept., in Provence, SE France. It is a commercial center in an area producing olives, grapes, and almonds. Its manufactures include food products, wine-making equipment, and electronics and software. Founded (123 B.C.) by the Romans near the site of mineral springs, it has long been a popular spa. There, in 102 B.C., MariusMarius, Caius
, c.157 B.C.–86 B.C., Roman general. A plebeian, he became tribune (119 B.C.) and praetor (115 B.C.) and was seven times consul. He served under Scipio Africanus Minor at Numantia and under Quintus Metellus against Jugurtha.
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 defeated the Teutons. It became an archiepiscopal see in the 5th cent. It has been the capital of ProvenceProvence
, region and former province, SE France. It encompasses what now are Var, Vaucluse, and Bouches-du-Rhône depts. and (in part) Alpes-de-Haute-Provence and Alpes-Maritimes depts.
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 since the 12th cent. (except when replaced by ArlesArles
, city (1990 pop. 52,543), Bouches-du-Rhône dept., S central France, in Provence, on the Rhône River delta. Arles is an important railroad, shipping, agriculture, and industrial center with varied manufactures.
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), and passed with Provence to the crown in 1487, becoming the seat of a provincial parlementparlement
, in French history, the chief judicial body under the ancien régime. The parlement consisted of a number of separate chambers: the central pleading chamber, called the Grand-Chambre; the Chambre des Requêtes
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. A music center since the 11th cent. and a focus of Provençal literatureProvençal literature,
vernacular literature of S France. Provençal, or Occitan, as the language is now often called, appears to have been the first vernacular tongue used in French commerce and literature.
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, Aix has a university (founded 1409; now combined with one at Marseilles). A notable structure is the Cathedral of Saint-Sauveur (13th–14th cent.). A picturesque town, Aix has become a favorite sojourn for painters. An opera festival is held each summer. Cézanne was born in Aix and lived and painted there.

Aix-en-Provence

 

(also Aix), a city in southeastern France, in Bouches-du-Rhóne Department. The ancient capital of Provence. Population, 111,000 (1975). Aix-en-Provence is a transportation junction. It has enterprises for the production of wine-making equipment, electrical machinery, matches, hats, carpets, and food products. Part of the University of Aix-Marseille is located there. The city is a balneological health resort.

Aix-en-Provence was founded in the second century B.C. In ancient times it was called Aquae Sextiae. Architectural monuments include the ruins of Roman buildings, the Romanesque Cathedral of St. Sauveur (constructed mainly in the 12th and 13th centuries), the Gothic church of St. Jean de Malte (c. 1285), and numerous palaces and fountains of the 17th and 18th centuries, mostly in the Italian baroque style. The museums of the city include the Granet Museum, which primarily houses works of the old French school, and the Museum of Tapestries and Old Furniture. P. Cézanne’s studio is open as a museum in the city.

Aix-en-Provence

a city and spa in SE France: the medieval capital of Provence. Pop.: 134 222 (1999)
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Although archaeologists knew much about the two cities and Phoenician civilization, they have long debated the sizes and locations of the ancient harbors, says Christophe Morhange, a geoarchaeologist at the National Center for Scientific Research in Aix-en-Provence, France.
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