Akhalkalaki(redirected from Akhalkalak)
a city and center of Akhalkalaki Raion, Georgian SSR. Located on the Akhalkalaki-Tskali River (tributary of the Kura), 74 km southeast of the Akhaltsikhe railroad station; a junction of highways to Leninakan, Borzhomi, and Akhaltsikhe. Population in 1969, 9,500. The city has a creamery, a sawmill, a brewery, and lemonade and starch factories. There is an agricultural technicum. In the region there are many architectural monuments, including the Kumurdo cathedral. Akhalkalaki was founded in 1064; it was completely destroyed in the 15th century and reconstructed in the 17th century. In the 18th century Akhalkalaki was transformed into a fortress. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–12 it was taken by Russian troops; according to the terms of the Bucharest Peace Treaty of 1812, it was returned to Turkey. Akhalkalaki was annexed permanently to Russia in 1829.