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Some studies have reported reduction in growth rates or increases in akinete numbers when salinity increases above 20-30 PSU (Jones et al., 1994; Lehtimaki et al., 1994).
in this genus ability of gliding motility and lake of heterocysts and akinetes are not formed.
Akinetes are spherical, ellipsoidal, cylindrical, curved, intercalary, solitary or in groups of two to five, in some species adjacent to heterocytes.
(2002), the representatives of this group have adaptive advantages over other organisms that occur in environments with low concentrations of nitrogen, as they have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen due to specialized cells called akinetes. Although, these organisms are capable of regulating their position in the water column, they are quite sensitive to conditions of mixture and high turbidity.
The morphological analysis was performed based on the measurement of vegetative cells (n = 400), heterocysts (n = 100 to 200) and akinetes (n = 60 to 150), determined using a binocular microscope (Nikon E200, Melville, NY, USA) with an ocular measurement coupled to the system.
Cyanobacteria are morphologically diverse and they consist of unicellular, colonial, pseudofilamentous, pseudoparenchymatous uniseriate, filamentous forms unbranched, undifferentiated, differentiated with specialized cells called heterocyst and akinetes and heterotrichous branched forms [2].
Fossil akinetes of Aphanizomenon and Anabaena as indicators for medieval phosphate-eutrophication of Lake Gosciaz (Central Poland).
Light and electron microscopic study on the formation, structure and germination of akinetes of Stigeoclonium tenue (Chaetophorales, Chlorophyceae).
Mesoproterozoic Archaeoellipsoides: akinetes of heterocystous cyanobacteria.
1994), cyanobacteria to produce akinetes (Whitton 1987), algae to produce spores, cysts, or gametes that fuse into diapausing zygotes (Fryxell 1983, Blanco 1995, Burkholder and Glasgow 1995), and amoebae and ciliates to encyst (Johnson and Evans 1939, Hashimoto 1962, Neff and Neff 1969, Grimes 1973, Corliss and Esser 1974, Walker et al.