Akkadian


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Akkadian

(əkā`dēən), extinct language belonging to the East Semitic subdivision of the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic family of languages (see Afroasiatic languagesAfroasiatic languages
, formerly Hamito-Semitic languages
, family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people in N Africa; much of the Sahara; parts of E, central, and W Africa; and W Asia (especially the Arabian peninsula, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and
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). Also called Assyro-Babylonian, Akkadian (or Accadian) was current in ancient Mesopotamia (now Iraq) from about 3000 B.C. until the time of Jesus. The earliest surviving inscriptions in the language go back to about 2500 B.C. and are the oldest known written records in a Semitic tongue.

Old Akkadian is the earliest period of the language and can be dated from its appearance in Mesopotamia c.3000 B.C. to c.1950 B.C., when the 3d dynasty of UrUr
, ancient city of Sumer, S Mesopotamia. The city is also known as Ur of the Chaldees. It was an important center of Sumerian culture (see Sumer) and is identified in the Bible as the home of Abraham. The site was discovered in the 19th cent.
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 fell. Thereafter, Akkadian evolved into two dialects, Assyrian, the tongue of ancient AssyriaAssyria
, ancient empire of W Asia. It developed around the city of Ashur, or Assur, on the upper Tigris River and south of the later capital, Nineveh. Assyria's Rise

The nucleus of a Semitic state was forming by the beginning of the 3d millennium B.C.
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, and Babylonian, the language of ancient BabyloniaBabylonia
, ancient empire of Mesopotamia. The name is sometimes given to the whole civilization of S Mesopotamia, including the states established by the city rulers of Lagash, Akkad (or Agade), Uruk, and Ur in the 3d millennium B.C.
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. The history of both Assyrian and Babylonian can be roughly divided into three successive periods designated as Old (beginning c.1950 B.C.), Middle (c.1500–c.1000 B.C.), and New or Late (after c.1000 B.C.). Around 1500 B.C., Babylonian began to be widely used, both in the Middle East and in international diplomacy. As time went on, Babylonian even replaced Assyrian to a large extent in the written records and literature of the Assyrian civilization. By the beginning of the Christian era, however, Babylonian had died out, and it remained a lost language until modern times, when it was deciphered during the first half of the 19th cent.

Unlike the other Semitic languages, which employed an alphabetic writing system, Akkadian and its later forms, Assyrian and Babylonian, were written in cuneiformcuneiform
[Lat.,=wedge-shaped], system of writing developed before the last centuries of the 4th millennium B.C. in the lower Tigris and Euphrates valley, probably by the Sumerians (see Sumer).
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. The Akkadians adopted cuneiform c.2500 B.C. from the Sumerians, a non-Semitic people who are believed to have invented it.

See also AkkadAkkad
, ancient region of Mesopotamia, occupying the northern part of later Babylonia. The southern part was Sumer. In both regions city-states had begun to appear in the 4th millennium B.C. In Akkad a Semitic language, Akkadian, was spoken.
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.

Bibliography

See I. J. Gelb, Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar (2d ed. 1961); E. Reiner, A Linguistic Analysis of Akkadian (1966); D. Marcus, A Manual of Addadian (1978).

References in periodicals archive ?
The T-Perfect in the Akkadian of Old Babylonian Letters, with a Supplement on Verbal Usage in the Code of Hammurapi and the Laws of Eshnunna.
Rashbam therefore read the Talmud's interpretation of the phrase to mean an "injured leg," whereas the Talmud itself was closer to following the original connotation of shefi [as "foot"] based on the Akkadian root.
Sin embargo, despues de aceptar la mision, Mathayus (The Rock) es el unico Akkadian superviviente.
There was even less community of interest between the Sumerian city-states and their Akkadian neighbors than between the Sumerian city-states themselves.
Harvey Weiss, director of excavations at the site of Tell Leilan, has argued for a total collapse in the Khabur region, caused by a "megadrought" and the effects of Akkadian imperialism, which resulted in a settlement hiatus of more than two centuries.
As a distinct early dialect of early Akkadian, Old Assyrian is a primary source for the development of Akkadian and the Semitic language family as a whole, he says, and offers a unique insight into the commercial activities, daily life, and mentality of a community of Assyrian merchants settled in Anatolia at the beginning of the second millennium BC.
It was also mentioned in the report that the name of Ishtar, the East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian goddess of fertility, love, war and sex, was mentioned in the writing on the tablet.
of London) alerts scholars of the Akkadian language to analytical questions and methods that in other fields fall within the province of textual criticism.
It contains 21 volumes of Akkadian, a Semitic language, with several dialects, including Assyrian that was in use for 2,500-years.
That article, as background, recounted how the Akkadian Empire created the world's first professional army, which it used to conquer the Sumerians and rule much of Iraq and half of Syria in the Third Millennium B.
Their prediction: Unless measures are taken to stem the increase in industrial, agricultural, and automotive carbon emissions, modern civilization could go the way of the Akkadian and Mayan civilizations, which collapsed during periods of dramatic climate change.
In the first contribution, Jaques discusses Akkadian personal laments and motifs employed in them in order to complain about one's dismay.