Hejaz

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Hejaz

or

Hedjaz

(both: hējăz`, hĕjäz`), region, c.150,000 sq mi (388,500 sq km), NW Saudi Arabia, on the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. MeccaMecca
or Makkah
, city (1993 pop. 966,381), capital of the Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. The birthplace c.A.D. 570 of Muhammad the Prophet, it is the holiest city of Islam, and the goal of the annual Muslim hajj. It is c.
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 is the chief city. Extending S to Asir, Hejaz is mainly a dissected highland region lying between the narrow, long coastal strip and the interior desert. There are several oases and some wadis (watercourses) where livestock and crops, such as dates and wheat, are raised. Economically important cities include Taif and Yanbu. The junction of the main north-south and east-west highways of Saudi Arabia, Taif is an important mountain city and market. Yanbu on the Red Sea is a major petrochemical city, the terminus for two oil pipelines. Hejaz is, however, more important as a place of pilgrimage. Each year many thousands of Muslim pilgrims come into Hejaz, mainly through JiddaJidda
or Jedda
, city (1993 est. pop. 2,058,000), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea. Jidda is the port of Mecca (c.45 mi/72 km to the east) and annually receives a huge influx of pilgrims, mainly from Africa, Indonesia, and Pakistan.
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, the chief port, to visit the holy cities of Mecca and MedinaMedina
, Arabic Medinat an-Nabi [city of the Prophet] or Madinat Rasul Allah [city of the apostle of Allah], city (1993 pop. 608,226), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. It is situated c.
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.

Following the fall (1258) of the caliphate of Baghdad, Hejaz came under Egyptian control. In 1517 it came under Turkish suzerainty, although nominal rule remained in the hands of the Hashemite sherifs of Mecca. In the early 19th cent. Hejaz was raided by the WahhabisWahhabi
or Wahabi
, reform movement in Islam, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.
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; peace was restored in 1817 by the governor of Egypt. After 1845, Hejaz came again under direct Turkish control. To improve communications, the Turks built the Hejaz railway (completed 1908) from Damascus to Medina; it was severely damaged during World War I and later abandoned. The Hejaz was in 1916 proclaimed independent by Husayn ibn AliHusayn ibn Ali
, 1856–1931, Arab political and religious leader. In 1908 he succeeded as grand sherif of Mecca and thus became ruler of the Hejaz under the Ottoman Empire.
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, the sherif of Mecca, who with the aid of T. E. LawrenceLawrence, T. E.
(Thomas Edward Lawrence), 1888–1935, British adventurer, soldier, and scholar, known as Lawrence of Arabia. While a student at Oxford he went on a walking tour of Syria and in 1911 joined a British Museum archaeological expedition in Mesopotamia.
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 destroyed Turkish authority. Husayn was himself defeated in 1924 by Ibn SaudIbn Saud
(Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud) , c.1880–1953, founder of Saudi Arabia and its first king. His family, with its regular seat at Riyadh in the Nejd, were the traditional leaders of the ultraorthodox Wahhabi movement in Islam.
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, ruler of NejdNejd
or Najd
, region, central Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, the country's capital and major city, is located there. The Nejd is a vast plateau from 2,500 to 5,000 ft (762–1,524 m) high.
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 and founder of Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia
, officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, kingdom (2005 est. pop. 26,419,000), 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km), comprising most of the Arabian peninsula. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; on the east by the Persian Gulf, Qatar, and the
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, who annexed his domain. The formal union of Hejaz and Nejd into Saudi Arabia was proclaimed in 1932.

Hejaz

 

a province in Saudi Arabia. Area, approximately 390,000 sq km. Population, approximately 2 million. The administrative and chief economic center is the city of Jidda. The population is engaged chiefly in nomadic livestock raising. Grain crops and dates and other fruit trees are grown in the oases and wadis. Fishing and coral gathering are practiced along the coast. The province has an oil refinery, a cement plant, and enterprises for processing metal and agricultural produce. There is also some handicraft cottage industry.

In the early seventh century, Muhammad first preached the new religion of Islam in the Hejaz, in the city of Mecca. The He-jaz was part of the Arabian Caliphate and, after the dissolution of the Caliphate, part of the Fatimid, Ayyubid, and Mameluke states. It became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. It was occupied by troops of the Egyptian pasha Muhammad Ali from 1811 to 1818 and remained an Egyptian province until 1840. Later it was ruled by a Turkish governor. In 1916 an insurrection against Turkish domination led by Husayn ibn Ali established the Hejaz as an independent kingdom.

In 1925 the Hejaz was conquered by the ruler of the Nejd, Ibn Saud, and made part of the newly formed state of Hejaz, Nejd, and regions annexed by Ibn Saud—all of which have been known as Saudi Arabia since 1932.

Hejaz

, Hedjaz, Hijaz
a region of W Saudi Arabia, along the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba: formerly an independent kingdom; united with Nejd in 1932 to form Saudi Arabia. Area: about 348 600 sq. km (134 600 sq. miles)
References in periodicals archive ?
q) In addition, despite not publicly providing evidence to support its claims, Saudi Arabia has accused al-Nimr of membership in Hizballah al-Hijaz, a Saudi-based Shi'a militant movement implicated in numerous attacks, including the 1996 attack on the Khobar Towers that killed 19 U.
Hezbollah al-Hijaz came out strongly against the accommodation of 1993 and treated Saffar's group like traitors, although it profited from the arrangement.
al-Sayf, Al-Hayah al-Iqtisadiyah wa al-Ijtima'iyah fi al-Najd wa al-Hijaz fi al-'Asr al-Umawi (Riyadh: Mu'assasat al-Risalah, 1983), 156.
The Al-Shawqiyyah branch municipality will do the same for its residents at the Um Al-Kidad park while the Al-Otaibiyah branch municipality will hold its Eid celebrations at the car park area of Souk (market) Al-Hijaz.
Havana, (SANA) - Students and the Syrian community in Cuba condemned the recent terrorist bombings that hit al-Hijaz Square in Damascus and Dawar Omran in Sweida Province, claiming the lives of a number of citizens, as they also renewed support to the Syrian leadership and army.
Mohammed Mansour, a salesman at an abaya store in Souk Al-Hijaz refused to sell such abayas.
He established the first Saudi monarchy in 1932 when he proclaimed himself king of Saudi Arabia - the Sovereign over al-Najd, the Eastern Province and the Western Province (including al-Hijaz whose main cities are Mecca and Madina - the two holiest shrine cities in the Muslim world (the third holiest city is Arab East Jerusalem's al-Aqsa Mosque).
A source at the Police Command told SANA that 3 shells fell on the residential neighborhoods of al-Hijaz, al-Marjeh and George Khouri Square in Damascus, causing the injury of two citizens and material damages to the areas.
Abdul Rahman Al-Shubaily, deputy chairman of the Board of Trustees of Saudi Research and Publishing Company, spoke about the history of printing and publication in Madinah, which saw the publication of three newspapers: Al-Raqeeb, Al-Madinah and Al-Hijaz about 100 years ago.
The QF master-mind of al-Khobar's 1996 blast which killed 19 US airmen was caught in Beirut after returning from Tehran and sent to Riyadh (see the story of Hizbullah al-Hijaz & "Ahmed al-Mughassil" via Google).
A crowd of the city's residents gathered in al-Hijaz Square in response to a call by several popular and civil society organizations chanting slogans in which they stressed support for the army in its national mission to eliminate the armed terrorist groups.
Earlier still, the QF master-mind of al-Khobar's big 1996 blast which killed 19 US airmen was caught in Beirut after returning from Tehran and sent to Riyadh (see the story of the Hizbullah al-Hijaz man, "Ahmed al-Mughassil", via Google).