Medina

(redirected from Al-Madinah)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

Medina

(mədī`nə), city (1990 pop. 19,231), seat of Medina co., N Ohio; laid out 1818, inc. as a city 1950. It is a processing point in a farm area. Paints, roofing, and industrial products are manufactured and aluminum and lumber are processed.

Medina

(mĭdē`nə), Arabic Medinat an-Nabi [city of the Prophet] or Madinat Rasul Allah [city of the apostle of Allah], city (1993 pop. 608,226), Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. It is situated c.110 mi (180 km) inland from the Red Sea in a well-watered oasis where fruit, dates, vegetables, and grain are raised. Before the flight (Hegira) of MuhammadMuhammad
[Arab.,=praised], 570?–632, the name of the Prophet of Islam, one of the great figures of history, b. Mecca. Early Life

Muhammad was the son of Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and his wife Amina, both of the Hashim clan of the dominant Kuraish (Quraysh)
..... Click the link for more information.
 from MeccaMecca
or Makkah
, city (1993 pop. 966,381), capital of the Hejaz, W Saudi Arabia. The birthplace c.A.D. 570 of Muhammad the Prophet, it is the holiest city of Islam, and the goal of the annual Muslim hajj. It is c.
..... Click the link for more information.
 to the city in 622, Medina was called Yathrib. Muhammad quickly gained control of Medina, successfully defended it against attacks from Mecca, and used it as the base for converting and conquering Arabia. Medina grew rapidly until 661, when the UmayyadUmayyad
, the first Islamic dynasty (661–750). Their reign witnessed the return to leadership roles of the pre-Islamic Arab elite, and the rejuvenation of tribal loyalties. The Banu Ummaya constituted the higher stratum of the pre-Islamic Meccan elite.
..... Click the link for more information.
 dynasty transferred the capital of the caliphate to Damascus. Thereafter Medina was reduced to the rank of a provincial town, ruled by governors appointed by the distant caliphs. Local warfare drained the city's prosperity. It came under the sway of the Ottoman Turks in 1517. The WahhabisWahhabi
or Wahabi
, reform movement in Islam, originating in Arabia; adherents of the movement usually refer to themselves as Muwahhidun [unitarians]. It was founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab (c.
..... Click the link for more information.
 captured it in 1804, but it was retaken for the Turks by Muhammad Ali in 1812. In World War I the forces of Husayn ibn Ali, who revolted against Turkey, captured Medina. In 1924 it fell to Ibn Saud, Husayn's rival, after a 15-month siege. The city is surrounded by double walls flanked by bastions and pierced by nine gates. The chief building is the Prophet's Mosque, which contains the tombs of Muhammad, his daughter Fatima, and the caliphs Umar and Abu Bakr. The pilgrimage to Mecca (see hajjhajj
, the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, one of the five basic requirements (arkan or "pillars") of Islam. Its annual observance corresponds to the major holy day id al-adha, itself a commemoration of Abraham's readiness to sacrifice his son on Divine orders.
..... Click the link for more information.
) usually includes a side trip to Medina. Medina is the seat of Islamic Univ. (1962).

Bibliography

See E. Esin, Mecca, the Blessed; Madinah, the Radiant (1963); M. S. Makki, Medina, Saudi Arabia: A Geographic Analysis of the City and Region (1982).

Medina

 

(full Arabic name, Medinat-Rasul-Allah), a city in northwestern Saudi Arabia. Situated in an oasis, it is linked by highway with the Red Sea ports of Yanbu and Jidda and with Mecca. Population, about 72,000.

The date of the city’s founding is unknown. It was called Yathrib in ancient times and Medina (from the Arabic madina, “city”) from the early Middle Ages. In 622, Muhammad, the founder of Islam, fled from Mecca to Medina, where he established a Muslim community (umma). Together with Mecca it has been a holy city of Islam since the seventh century. Medina was the capital of the Arabian Caliphate from 632 to 656, and in the tenth century it became a vassal of the dynasties ruling in Egypt. From the time of Egypt’s conquest by the Turks in 1517 until January 1919, it belonged to the Ottoman empire. It was part of the Kingdom of the Hejaz from 1919 to 1924, when it was incorporated into Saudi Arabia (known as the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Nejd until 1932).

Originally, the city had a polygonal, almost round, layout and was enclosed by a stone wall with four gates; two intersecting main streets led to the gates. It was later enlarged and the number of gates increased to eight. In the center is the Great Mosque, built in 656 on the site of Muhammad’s house and subsequently rebuilt many times. The present mosque dates from 1853-54. The houses, built in the 19th and 20th centuries, are traditional buildings of one to three stories.

The principal sources of income are commerce, services for pilgrims, the production of prayer beads and rugs, and the making of special clothing for pilgrims. Fruit, vegetables, and dates are grown. An important industry is the processing of dates, exported through Yanbu.

REFERENCE

Emel, Esin. La Mecque, ville bénie, Médine, ville radieuse. Paris, 1963.

Medina

holy city to which Muhammad fled from Mecca. [Islamic Religion: Brewer Dictionary, 596]

Medina

a city in W Saudi Arabia: the second most holy city of Islam (after Mecca), with the tomb of Mohammed; university (1960). Pop.: 1 044 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
At the time of its announcement of the company's formation, PIF said in a statement that the Rua Al-Madinah project would comprise 500 housing units and 80,000 hotel rooms, "increasing hotel capacity to receive 240,000 guests per day, in addition to increasing the number of prayer areas to accommodate 200,000 worshipers per day".
Lord Nash, the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Schools, added that Mr Day was keen to meet Al-Madinah's trustees, governors, staff, pupils, parents and the wider community to secure the future of the school and discuss the way ahead.
Al-Madinah has been criticised after claims it discriminated against women, required staff to cover their hair regardless of their religion, made girls sit at the back of the class and rated inadequate in each of the categories Ofsted examines.
The school, run by Al-Madinah Education Trust, must prove in the next week that it has stopped practices that lead to women and girls being treated "less favourably" than men and boys.
In a statement on Al-Madinah school's website today, Mr Wilson said the "urgent" health and safety issues had been "fully addressed" and the school would open as normal next weeK.
Al-Madinah is a new type of free school opened by groups of parents or interested parties in much the same way as private schools outside local authority control, but qualifying for Government funding.
After inspecting the site, Prince Abdulaziz said that the Knowledge Economic City Al-Madinah is one of the "result" of the directives that the Custodian of The Two Holy Masques, King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, gave after attaining the throne.
The parks closed by Al-Madinah mayoralty weren't renewed or made into new parks.
Meanwhile, the forum is held within the Centre's participation in the events marking the selection of Al-Madinah Al-Monawara as a capital of the Islamic Culture for 1434 Hijri/2013.
In a damning judgment, the schools' watchdog Ofsted said Al-Madinah free school, which allegedly forced women teachers to cover their hair and made boys and girls sit separately in class, is failing and is set to be put in to special measures.
About Knowledge Economic City Al Madinah (KEC)KEC Madinah is one of four economic cities being developed in Saudi Arabia to boost regional development and provide employment for the country's growing population by focusing on Intellectual Property, Knowledge-Based Industries, Medical, Hospitality, Tourism and Multi-Media.The project is located at Al-Madinah, the home of the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) where the Holy Quran was compiled.
In a statement to the Saudi Press Agency (SPA), Sheikh Tawil, a graduate of Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah-based Islamic University, said that the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques Guests Program for Hajj, Umrah and Visit is one of the important programs in our Islamic world at the present time achieved by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia under its wise leadership.