To the north there are numerous Empire period sites apart from the well-known centers at Bogazkoy and Alaca Hoyuk
. Hittite Empire period stone-quarrying activity is attested at the site of Karakiz.
The site of Alaca Hoyuk
was chosen for its tremendous archaeological value, since excavations uncovered thirteen royal tombs housing incredibly rich funerary furniture.
Our tour features Antakya (Antioch), Harran, Nemrut Dag, the Armenian and Urartian sites around Lake Van, the Armenian churches of Ani, the Black Sea coast and the Hittite sites of Altintepe, Karatepe, Alaca Hoyuk
and Hattusa--ending in Ankara.
This latter information is particularly pertinent for the identification of Arinna on the ground, although Popko rejects the obvious candidate Alaca Hoyuk
, which he continues to equate with Zippalanda (p.
Gorny in this journal, the Hittite town of Zippalanda is indeed to be identified with the modem site of Alaca Hoyuk, and ancient Ankuwa is probably to be equated with Eskiyapar.
Gorny has published a review article (JAOS 117 : 549--57) of my book Zippalanda: Em Kultzentrum im hethitischen Kleinasien (1994), in which he rejects my identification of Zippalanda with Alaca Hoyuk and of nearby Kalehisar/Karahisar with Mt.
In accordance with the arguments presented here, I searched for Zippalanda in the area north of the capital and selected the site of Alaca Hoyuk, twenty-five kilometers from Hattusa, as a most likely location.
Gorny questions the view that the representations on the Sphinx Gate at Alaca Hoyuk might have reflected local religious beliefs that were different from the official religion (p.
Popko attempts to secure the identification both of Zippalanda with the well-known Hittite settlement at Alaca Hoyuk (pp.
Inasmuch as the Alaca orthostats play such a significant part in Popko's attempt to link Zippalanda with Alaca Hoyuk (see below), photographs of the stone carvings would have been useful.
In my dissertation (Gorny 1990: 395-436), for instance, I defended the idea that Alisar is to be equated with the Hittite town of Ankuwa (for other views, see Gurney 1973; Forlanini 1980; and Unal 1984), while also suggesting that nearby Kusakli Hoyuk [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED] could be the site of Hittite Zippalanda (Gorny 1990: 433-34).(1) Popko's publication, however, which identifies Alaca Hoyuk with Zippalanda, calls into question the equation of both Alisar with Ankuwa and Kusakh with Zippalanda.
Since Alaca Hoyuk and Eskiyapar are at the same altitude as the Hittite capital, the usage of "down" is significant and makes a trip to the lower altitudes of the south a more likely alternative than one in the opposite direction.