Albert Calmette

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Calmette, Albert


Born July 12, 1863, in Nice; died Oct. 29, 1933, in Paris. French microbiologist and hygienist. Member of the French Academy of Medicine (1919) and the Academy of Sciences in Paris (1927).

Calmette graduated from the University of Paris medical department in 1885. He was a student of L. Pasteur. From 1895 to 1919 he was director of the Pasteur Institute and simultaneously (1898-1917) professor of hygiene and bacteriology of the medical department at Lille; in 1917 he became vice-director of the Pasteur Institute in Paris. His principal works dealt with tuberculosis, smallpox, plague, the biological purification of sewage, microbiological and serological techniques, and the development of serotherapeutic methods of treating snakebites; he also proposed a diagnostic reaction to test for tuberculosis. Together with the French scientist C. Guérin he created an antituberculosis vaccine, known throughout the world as BCG, which was first used on newborns in 1921. From 1893 to 1897 he studied the epidemiology of plague in Saigon. Together with the French microbiologist A. Yersin, he was the first to apply the techniques of serotherapy.


Predokhranite’naia vaktsinatsiia protiv tuberkuleza pripomoshchi BCG.
Moscow-Leningrad, 1929. (Translated from French.) Rukovodstvo po mikrobiologicheskoi i serologicheskoi tekhnike, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937. (Translated from French.)


Liubarskii, V. A. “Kal’mett.” Zhurnal mikrobiologii i immunobiologii, 1934, vol. 12, issue 1, pp. 1-6.
Togunova, A. I. “Zhizn’ i deiatel’nost’ A. Kal’metta.” Vestnik Akademii meditsinskikh nauk SSSR, 1964, no. 8.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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The first horse-derived antivenom sera, produced by a protege of Louis Pasteur named Albert Calmette, were used by Lepinay for antivenom treatment in present-day Vietnam (1).
In the realm of the history of science, Sasges rightly highlights the impact of Jean Effront on Albert Calmette. Effront's invention of a terrifying product known as viandine, a meat substitute derived from waste, manifestly influenced Calmette in his cooperation with Fontaine.
The history of the BCG vaccine starts with Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin.
Yet the monopoly also reflected a global scientific revolution in knowledge about industrial alcohol production, brought to Indochina by a medical doctor (Albert Calmette) who came to the colony to study disease, but was soon put to work developing a faster fermentation process that was then institutionalised in the factories of A.R.
Lille is the place where Professors Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin developed the current TB Vaccine BCG 90 years ago at the Institut Pasteur de Lille.
Its rise to prominence began in 1908, when Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin at the Pasteur Institute in Paris developed a weakened strain of a bacterium that causes TB in both cows and humans.
Albert Calmette also discussed the success that he, together with Camille Guerin, had achieved in immunizing cattle against TB by using an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis.