Albert Claude

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Claude, Albert

(älbârr` klōd), 1899–1983, Belgian biologist, b. Longlier, M.D., Univ. of Liège, 1928. He joined the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller Univ.) in 1929 and spent his entire career there. During the 1930s and 40s, Claude did pioneering work in the use of the electron microscope to study animal cells. He also contributed to the development of differential centrifugation, a technique in which tissues or cells are homogenized and the various cell components then separated out. The techniques yielded new information about cell structure and function (Claude discovered cell mitochondria, for example), and laid the foundation for the modern discipline of cell biology. Claude was co-recipient of the 1974 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with Christian de Duvede Duve, Christian
(Christian Renē Maria Joseph de Duve), 1917–2013, Belgian cell biologist, b. England, M.D., Catholic Univ. of Louvain, 1941. He joined the faculty at Louvain in 1947 and at the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller Univ.
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 and George PaladePalade, George Emil
, 1912–2008, American cell biologist, b. Iaşi, Romania, M.D. Univ. of Bucharest, 1940. He was a faculty member at the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller Univ.) from 1946 to 1973, when he joined the Yale Medical School.
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 for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Claude, Albert


Born Aug. 23, 1899, in Longlier. Belgian biologist and cytologist.

Claude, a graduate of the University of Liège, joined the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in 1929. From 1949 to 1971 he was director of the Jules Bordet Institute in Brussels, becoming head of the laboratory of cellular biology and cancer there in 1970.

Claude’s chief works have dealt with the ultrastructure of the cell. Claude developed a method of differential centrifuging that makes it possible to separate out and study subcellular structures in the form of distinct fractions known as microsomes. In 1974, Claude shared a Nobel Prize with G. Palade and C. de Duve.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Claude, Albert

(1898–1983) cell biologist; born in Longlier, Belgium (to American citizens). He performed cellular research in Europe (1928–29), then joined the Rockefeller Institute (now Rockefeller University) (1929–72). A citizen of both Belgium and the U.S.A., he concurrently directed the Jules Bordet Institute, Brussels (1948–72), and was a professor at the Université Libre, Brussels (1948–69). Claude is considered the founder of modern cell biology, and shared the 1974 Nobel Prize in physiology for his many pioneering contributions. He devised the differential centrifugation technique to separate cell components, identified the Rous sarcoma virus from chicken tumors as an RNA virus, discovered the cell organelles known as mitochondria and also the endoplasmic recticulum, and was the first to use electron microscopy in cellular research.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.