Albert Bruce Sabin

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Sabin, Albert Bruce

(sā`bĭn), 1906–93, American physician and microbiologist, b. Bialystock, Russia, grad. New York Univ. (B.S., 1928; M.D., 1931). He emigrated to the United States in 1921 and was naturalized in 1930. He conducted medical research for several organizations before joining (1939) the faculty at the Univ. of Cincinnati college of medicine; there he became (1946) professor of research pediatrics. He conducted research on viral and other infectious diseases and developed (c.1959) a live-virus vaccine for immunization against poliomyelitispoliomyelitis
, polio,
or infantile paralysis,
acute viral infection, mainly of children but also affecting older persons. Historically, there were three immunologic types of poliomyelitis virus, but two of three types of the wild virus have been eradicated;
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. The Sabin vaccine may be taken orally and provides longer immunity than the killed-virus vaccine. Also, the killed-virus vaccine protects only against paralysis, whereas the live vaccine guards against both paralysis and infection.
References in periodicals archive ?
(varies with source) 1955 Jonas Salk's injected vaccine 1960 Albert Sabin's oral (sugar cube) vaccine 1979 Last wild polio case in the U.S.
1957-59: Mass trials of Albert Sabin's live, attenuated vaccine in Russia.
Along with Albert Sabin's later oral live-virus version, the Salk vaccine made it possible to conquer this dreaded disease in every country of the Americas (see sidebar p.
Elder, MD, MSPH, Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 670582, Eden Avenue and Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0582.
Although the first polio vaccine was announced by Dr Jonas Salk in 1954 and Dr Albert Sabin's oral polio vaccine was approved for use by the American Medical Association, the fight against the disease is not yet over.
Albert Sabin, has been used for nearly 40 years and has played a huge role in the elimination of polio.
Then, too, Porter recounts the story of the conflict between Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin over how best to fight polio, but he leaves it dangling and incomplete (695-96).
Polio reached epidemic status in 1916 and flared up repeatedly--usually during the hot summer months--until the introduction of Jonas Salk's killed virus vaccine in 1955 and Albert Sabin's oral vaccine in 1961.
Less well known but likewise important at this stage, Salk's competitor Albert Sabin developed an oral vaccine that was introduced in 1961.
In his very moving history of the development of the oral vaccine against poliomyelitis, Albert Sabin gave a graphic description of the thirty years of research that were needed to develop his highly effective vaccine.
Salk famously asked - "Could you patent the Sun?" Salk's close competitor Albert Sabin developed an even more inexpensive vaccine, based on the live-virus approach.