Johnston, Albert Sidney

(redirected from Albert Sidney Johnston)
Also found in: Wikipedia.

Johnston, Albert Sidney,

1803–62, Confederate general, b. Washington, Ky. After serving in the Black Hawk War, he resigned (1834) from the U.S. army and went to Texas where he enlisted (1835) in the revolutionary army. Johnston became its commander in 1837 and served as Texas secretary of war, 1838–40. In the Mexican War, he commanded a regiment of volunteers and saw action at Monterrey. Reentering the U.S. army in 1849, Johnston served on the Texas frontier, was commander of the Dept. of Texas (1856–58), led the expedition against the Mormons (1857), and commanded the Dept. of Utah (1858–60). When Texas seceded from the Union in Apr., 1861, Johnston, commanding the Dept. of the Pacific, again resigned his commission in the U.S. army and was soon made general in charge of Confederate operations in the West. Union victories, especially at Fort Donelson (Feb., 1862), forced him to withdraw from the line of defense he had established in 1861. He concentrated an army at Corinth, Miss., and on Apr. 6, 1862, attacked Ulysses S. Grant at Shiloh (see Shiloh, battle ofShiloh, battle of,
Apr. 6–7, 1862, one of the great battles of the American Civil War. The battle took its name from Shiloh Church, a meetinghouse c.3 mi (5 km) SSW of Pittsburg Landing, which was a community in Hardin co., Tenn., 9 mi (14.
..... Click the link for more information.
). Johnston was killed at the height of battle.


See biography by his son W. P. Johnston (1878, repr. 1964); C. P. Roland, Albert Sidney Johnston (1987).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Johnston, Albert Sidney

(1803–62) soldier; born in Washington, Ky. The son of a doctor, he graduated from West Point (1826) and served in the regular army until 1834. He commanded irregular forces in Texas in 1837–38 and led Texas troops during the Mexican War. He reentered the U.S. Army in 1849 and served until April 1861. Given command of Confederate forces between the Appalachians and the Mississippi river, he surprised Grant's army at Shiloh on April 6, 1862, but was killed in action there, perhaps enhancing his reputation as one of the greatest of all soldiers and the general who might have saved the Confederacy.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
Grant, had gathered on the banks of its namesake river at a spot called Pittsburg Landing, ready to strike deep into the heart of Tennessee Confederates, commanded by General Albert Sidney Johnston. Johnston's troops were reeling from setbacks earlier in the year and had decided to reverse their fortunes by taking the fight to the Federals.
Grant engaged Confederate troops led by Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T.
And soon after those sobering remarks, Davis's favorite field commander, Albert Sidney Johnston, was dead (mortally wounded at Shiloh) and the Confederate's most popular general at the time, Pierre G.T.
It was a gift to her husband, General Albert Sidney Johnston, who later was killed during the Civil War at the Battle of Shiloh.
In the latter area, Davis's loyalty toward friends such as Albert Sidney Johnston, Leonidas Polk, Braxton Bragg, and commissary general Lucius Northrup come in for the usual criticism, as does his intense dislike of other officers such as P.
Enlisting as a private, he was elected first lieutenant in the First Texas Regiment of Volunteers and was later appointed as adjutant on the staff of Albert Sidney Johnston.
Albert Sidney Johnston never engaged in any pitched battles with them.
The uninformed reader could falsely assume that Colonel Johnston (son of the Confederate Army commander Albert Sidney Johnston) was present and witness to the combat he describes.
General Albert Sidney Johnston, the second-highest-ranking general in the army of the Confederate States of America, just behind C.S.A.
Albert Sidney Johnston, however, sent him to Chattanooga, where he took charge of two small hospitals.
Albert Sidney Johnston's army at Shiloh (April 6-7), and was then transferred to command the Trans-Mississippi Department, where his attack on Union forces at Prairie Grove was repulsed (December 7); returned to the east to lead a division at Chickamauga (September 19-20, 1863) and at the siege (September-November) and battle of Chattanooga (November 24-25); continued as a divisional commander during Sherman's drive on Atlanta (May-July 1864), but was compelled to retire when he was wounded in the eye; fled abroad after the war ended (May 1865), and after three years in Brazil as a coffee farmer, he returned to Arkansas where he was murdered for his opposition to carpetbagger rule (1868).
Sources: Johnson, William Preston, The Life of Albert Sidney Johnston. New York, 1878.