Albigensian Crusades

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Albigensian Crusades

 

crusades conducted 1209–29 (with interruptions) in southern France against the Albigenses, undertaken on the initiative of the papacy in order to suppress a heresy which posed a danger to it. The immediate cause of the crusades was the murder in 1208 of a papal legate by a retainer of Raymond VI, the count of Toulouse. Pope Innocent III excommunicated Raymond VI, who was charged with inspiring the murder, and called for a crusade against the heretics. Philip II (Philip Augustus), the king of France, was engaged in a struggle against England for territory in northern France and refused to head the crusade. The army of crusaders was made up of northern French (in part German) knights, who intended to profit by the rich cities of the south; the clergy of northern France also played an active role. Count Simon de Mont-fort became the leader of the crusaders. In 1209 the crusaders seized and pillaged many southern cities (Béziers, Carcassonne, and others). For southern France the war quickly lost its religious character and was transformed into the resistance of the ProvenÇal people against the northern aggressors. Pedro II, the king of Aragon, entered the war on the side of Raymond VI, who led the military forces of the south. After the battle of 1213 at Muret (in which Pedro died), which ended in the victory of the crusaders, much territory in southern France fell under the control of Simon de Montfort, who acknowledged himself the vassal of the French king. Raymond VI managed to retain only Toulouse, Nímes, Beaucaire, and Agen. In 1215, after a long siege, Toulouse fell and Raymond fled. The Fourth Lateran Council condemned him as a heretic, and his holdings were transferred to Simon de Montfort. However, the resistance of the south was not yet broken. In 1217 a popular uprising in Toulouse was victorious. Taking advantage of this, Raymond returned to Toulouse; his authority was accepted by many cities and areas of Languedoc and Provence, which also rebelled against the crusaders. In 1224, Raymond VII, the son of Raymond VI, drove the forces of A. de Montfort (the son of S. de Montfort, who was killed in 1218) out of Carcassonne. Achieving the acceptance of his conditions—mainly the nonintervention of the pope in secular affairs and in affairs of the local clergy—Louis VIII, the king of France, who had refrained earlier from aiding Montfort because he feared the formation of a strong state in the south, began war against the southerners. The royal forces seized Avignon (1226); many cities of the south then declared their submission to the French throne (A. de Montfort turned his possessions over to the king). As a result, much of Toulouse county was annexed to the royal domain (the Parisian treaty of 1229). The Albigensian wars inflicted great harm on the economy of the south, arresting the development of the cities, which had flourished in the prewar period.

REFERENCES

Osokin, N. A. Istoriia al’bigoitsev i ikh vremeni, vols. 1–2. Kazan’, 1869–72.
Belperron, P. La croisade contre les albigeois et I’union de Languedoc ä la France (1209–1249). Paris, 1942.
References in periodicals archive ?
Jorg Feuchter refiere en <<The Albigensian Crusade, the Dominicans and the Antiheretical Dispositions of the Council>> algunas cuestiones que trato el concilio con motivo del desafio albigense o cataro de Languedoc.
Like much of this area of southern France it is steeped in history and owes its name to the violent repression meted out in the 13th century by members of the Roman Catholic Church to Albigensians - the followers of Catharism, a religious sect, and hence the phrase the Albigensian Crusade.
As the world around her erupts into the Albigensian Crusade, Elmina finds herself complicit in its horror, and her spiritual and emotional life begins to unravel.
In some sections, most notably those dealing with the Fourth Crusade and the Albigensian Crusade, the coverage is, on the other hand, wholly inadequate.
One strand, organised by Maureen Boulton, looked at vernacular literature after the council; another, co-ordinated by Damian Smith, incorporated one session on the Fourth Lateran Council and the Albigensian Crusade, and one organised by Maria Joao Branco, looking at 'An Agenda for Hispania', and would continue into the Saturday.
John France investigates the altered political environment produced by the Albigensian Crusade. The Capuchins, a diverse fraternity founded to counter disorder throughout twelfth-century southern France, ended up marginalized by the conclusion of that century.
A few, like Alan Murray's 'Sex, Death and the Problem of Single Women in the Armies of the First Crusade' and 'The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade' of Mark Pegg are actually social history, while Amanda Power's 'The Importance of Greeks in Latin Thought: The Evidence of Roger Bacon' is intellectual history.
But popes and bishops acted against these dangerous currents by banning lay preaching, condemning "heretics" by the Inquisition, and even carrying out the Albigensian Crusade.
208) This change begins to manifest itself in latter half of the mid-twelfth century, eventually giving rise to the Albigensian Crusade and the development of medieval inquisitorial practices.
Turning (European history, Arizona State U.) explores how as the French region of Languedoc came to be absorbed into the medieval Capetian kingdom in the wake of the Albigensian Crusade municipal, royal, and ecclesiastical officials struggled for jurisdiction over the population of the city of Toulouse, as well as how urban populations themselves engaged in these contestations through protests, revolts, and public engagement with the legal system, thereby playing a key role in the formation of the political and judicial structures of the 13th and 14th centuries.
This set the precedent, followed for over a thousand years, of the authorities fighting heresy, sometimes brutally, as with the thirteenth century Albigensian Crusade in Languedoc, southern France.
In the decade that followed the end of the Albigensian Crusade, the rituals, procedures, and punishments of the Medieval Inquisition were codified.