alcalde

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alcalde

(ălkăl`dē, Span. älkäl`dā) [Span., from Arab.,=the judge], Spanish official title, in existence at least from the 11th cent. Since the late 19th cent. it has been used for the mayor of a town or village who also acts as justice of the peace. Originally, however, it designated a judge whose scope of jurisdiction varied and who had administrative functions as well. There were, for example, alcaldes de la hermandad (judges attached to the tribunals of the town federations formed to assure public order and safety; see hermandadhermandad
[Span.,=brotherhood], a peacekeeping association of armed individuals, a characteristic of municipal life in medieval Spain, especially in Castile. Hermandades are known to have existed as early as the 12th cent.
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) and alcaldes de corte (judges whose jurisdiction extended over the royal residence and the surrounding area). The alcaldes were distinguished from the regidores, whose functions were primarily administrative. In the 14th cent. the corregidores, royal appointees charged with assisting the regidores in their duties, encroached upon the judicial functions of the alcaldes, depriving them of all but minor civil and criminal jurisdiction. Moreover, alcaldes were increasingly chosen by the crown, with only a few towns keeping the right to choose their own alcaldes (these being known thereafter as alcaldes ordinarios). Since the corregidores were often inadequately versed in law, each usually received advice from two trained lawyers, termed alcaldes mayores, who specialized in criminal and civil law, respectively. The office was also instituted in the Spanish colonies, but changed its character. There the alcalde mayor was the administrator of a provincial division usually smaller than that of a corregidor; he also presided over the town ayuntamiento (later known as the cabildocabildo
, autonomous municipal council, the lowest administrative unit in the Spanish government. The institution was especially influential in Spanish America, where it was set up in the early 16th cent.
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). The alcalde ordinario was an elected municipal officer who frequently exercised the powers of mayor and sheriff and was in some villages the sole representative of the law.
References in periodicals archive ?
When King went home, however, he told his father what happened, resulting in Tenoso going to Alcade's house and shooting the victim.
Though Mullisheg became the cynosure of the second half of the play, he shared the limelight with Justin Farley's Alcade, his handy, wondrously insouciant, and comically rotten chamberlain.
(29.) According to Alcade Fradejas and Valles Gimenez (2002), certain differences between risk premiums based on the regions' degree of indebtedness existed between 1990 and 1995.
After enlisting the help of TPi Alcade. Arcade, N.Y., and its V-Process casting method, the components had improved consistency and less machining time.
But it only follows the material itself" (153), and he begins by tracing the popularity of Calderon's El alcade de Zalamea (one of his "peasant plays") in Paris in the late eighteenth century.
TFH, 22982 Alcade Dr., Suite 201, Lagune Hill., CA 92653; (888) 936-7872.
Reglamento de higiene, 1898; "Relacion de las meretrices que han sido dadas de baja por orden del Senor Alcade .