Cardiomyopathy

(redirected from Alcoholic cardiomyopathy)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.

cardiomyopathy

[¦kärd·ē·ō‚mī′äp·ə·thē]
(medicine)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cardiomyopathy

 

(myocardosis), a term often applied to a broad group of heart diseases; specifically, noninflammatory lesions of the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting from a disturbance in myocardial metabolism. Among the causes of cardiomyopathy are nutritional disorders (alimentary dystrophy and avitaminosis, for example); protein metabolism disorders in hepatic or renal insufficiency and podagra; disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus) and electrolyte metabolism; and endocrine disorders such as those associated with thyrotoxicosis and with hypoxia in impairment of coronary circulation, anemia, and mountain sickness. Myocardosis may also be caused by overstraining the myocardium and by exogenous poisons, such as carbon monoxide and alcohol.

In many cases the patient has no specific symptoms in the early stages; however, there may be shortness of breath and disagreeable sensations in the heart. Cardiomyopathy is manifested by dull, distant heart sounds, electrocardiographic changes, systolic murmur, extrasystole, and, more rarely, other types of arrhythmia. Severe cardiomyopathy weakens the heart contractions and may cause cardiac insufficiency. The changes associated with cardiomyopathy are usually reversible and disappear with the elimination of the underlying disease.

The cure includes treatment of the underlying disease and administration of agents that improve metabolic processes in the myocardium.

REFERENCE

Kedrov, A. A. Bolezni myshtsy serdtsa. Leningrad, 1963.

N. R. PALEEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a heart-muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption.
In general, initial signs of Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) appear to be increased left ventricular mass along with increased posterior and septal wall thickening.
Alcohol consumed to excess over several years can produce an alcoholic cardiomyopathy, in which alcohol acts as a toxin to weaken the heart muscle directly and hence may improve with abstention.
(2, 3) Initially, this was thought to be a manifestation of latent alcoholic cardiomyopathy, but later studies in non-alcoholic patients and in experimental animal models revealed the same pattern of blunted cardiac contractile responsiveness.
Defects in the cardiovascular system appear in up to 50% of children diagnosed with FAS.2 Alcohol drinking can interfere with the normal functioning of the heart; a condition referred to as alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a degenerative disease of the heart muscle characterised by a reduced capacity of the heart to pump blood (i.e., depressed cardiac output), reduced ability of the heart muscle to contract, and widening (i.e., dilatation) of all heart chambers.3 As the development of chick heart parallels that of the human heart,4 it has been used as a developmental model in various researches to study heart development and congenital heart defects.5
People who drink more than 10 units a day for 10 years are at a higher risk of alcoholic cardiomyopathy - weakening of the heart muscles causing shortness of breath, bad circulation and heart failure.LIVERRESPONSIBLE for breaking down the alcohol in the body, but it takes one hour to eliminate one unit from the bloodstream.
KEY WORDS: chronic AODE (effects of AOD [alcohol or other drug] use, abuse, or dependence); alcoholic liver disorder; immune system; cardiovascular system; bone; breast; cancer; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; heart disorder; cardiac arrhythmia
Deaths Alcohol-attributable condition Male Female Total Lip & Oropharyngeal Cancer 173 38 211 Oesophageal Cancer 304 65 370 Liver Cancer 171 63 234 Laryngeal Cancer 170 17 186 Breast Cancer 0 189 189 Alcoholic Psychoses 46 6 52 Alcohol Dependence Syndrome 416 117 533 Alcohol Abuse 70 21 91 Epilepsy 21 16 37 Alcoholic Polyneuropathy 0 0 0 Hypertension 23 7 30 Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy 69 4 73 Cardiac Dysrhythmias 56 48 103 Heart Failure & III-defined 8 5 12 Stroke 142 12 153 Oesophageal Varices 5 1 61 Gastro-oesophag.
Animal models also have helped researchers explore the mechanisms by which both short-term (e.g., binge) and long-term drinking can interfere with the function of the heart, a condition referred to as alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, animal models have provided substantial information on the causes of fetal alcohol syndrome.
The most convincing circumstantial evidence for alcoholic cardiomyopathy is the extensive data, in animals and humans, of nonspecific cardiac abnormalities related to alcohol.