Although the two species examined here are both members of the Holaxonia-Alcyoniina clade of Alcyonacea
, they are otherwise not closely related.
The failure of the phylogenetic analysis to recover mono-phyletic species may also reflect problems within the Pseu-dopterogoria and Alcyonacea
in general that go beyond the scope of our study.
Using Parerythropodium (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea
), Gateno et al.
Alcyonaria (Stolonifera, Alcyonacea
, Telestacea, and Gorgonacea).
For example, the evolutionary success of one group of sessile invertebrates--soft corals (Cnidaria, Alcyonacea
)--living in areas of high predation and competition, such as in tropical regions, has been attributed to their production of significant amounts of secondary metabolites, especially terpenes (Tursch et al., 1978; Sammarco and Coll, 1988, 1992).
Soft corals (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea
) are a major benthic component of Indo-Pacific reefs in particular, and they have a high level of ecological interaction through their production of secondary metabolites (Coll, 1992).
Predation on zooplankton by the benthic anthozoans Alcyonim siderium (Alcyonacea
) and Metridium senile (Actiniaria) in the New England subtidal.
Reproduction and growth of Anthomastus ritteri (Octocorallia: Alcyonacea
) from Monterey Bay, California, USA.