Applications of the Alder Ene reaction may be found primarily in the patent literature (14-17).
Caywood (14) examined the process of incorporating maleic anhydride into EPDM via the Alder Ene reaction, to generate a polymer capable of forming ionic crosslinks in the presence of a weak base such as zinc or magnesium oxide.
The maleated EPDMs were produced through a catalyzed Alder Ene reaction, as described earlier.
The succinyl anhydride group does not appear to be useful for discriminating between free radical induced grafting and Alder Ene reaction. However, the nature of the unsaturation appeared to be much more informative.
The samples produced by the Alder Ene reaction (samples 43F and 58F) in Fig.
It was previously observed with polypropylene (21) that maleation via the Alder Ene reaction at temperatures above 230 [degrees] C exhibited side-reactions such as isomerization and homopolymerization of maleic anhydride.
The catalytic behavior of stannous chloride at high temperatures in the Alder Ene reaction between maleic anhydride and polypropylene has been observed in previous studies (20, 21); however, the findings above demonstrate the possibility of optimizing the reaction by examining other Lewis acid species where the optimal Lewis acid species would presumably be reaction system specific.