Shubnikov, Aleksei Vasil’evich
Born Mar. 17 (29), 1887, in Moscow; died there Apr. 27, 1970. Soviet crystallogra-pher. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1953; corresponding member, 1933). Hero of Socialist Labor (1967).
Shubnikov graduated from Moscow University in 1912. He then worked at the Shaniavskii People’s University under G. V. Vul’f. From 1920 to 1925 he was a professor at the Urals Mining Institute. Beginning in 1925, he worked at the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In 1937 he became head of the crystallography laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, and in 1944, director of the Institute of Crystallography, which was founded on his initiative. Beginning in 1953, Shubnikov was a professor and head of a subdepartment at Moscow State University.
Shubnikov’s main works dealt with crystal physics, symmetry, the formation and growth of crystals, and applications of crystals. Shubnikov laid the foundations for the generalizations of crystal-lographic symmetry, thus creating the study of antisymmetry. He developed the symmetry approach in the investigation and description of the properties of single crystals and polycrystals. Shubnikov predicted the existence of and was the first to create piezoelectric textures. One of the first to study crystal growth, he was instrumental in developing modern techniques for growing and processing crystals.
Shubnikov received the State Prize of the USSR in 1947 and 1950. He was awarded two Orders of Lenin, two other orders, and various medals.