Smith, Alexander(1865–1922) physical chemist, educator; born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He emigrated to the United States in 1894 and became affiliated with the department of chemistry at the University of Chicago (1894–1911). During that period, he did important studies on sulphur and on the formation of solid and liquid forms of sulphur. He also developed methods of measuring vapor pressure at high temperatures. He was head of the chemistry department at Columbia University (1911–19).