Alexandre Brongniart

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Brongniart, Alexandre


Born Feb. 5, 1770, in Paris; died there Oct. 7, 1847. French geologist. Member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1815).

Brongniart was professor of natural history from 1797 and professor of mineralogy from 1822 in Paris. Together with G. Cuvier, he established a scheme of the stratigraphic division of Tertiary deposits of the Paris basin. He introduced the concept of index fossils and helped create the paleontological method in stratigraphy. In 1813 he proposed a mineralogical classification of rocks and gave a series of new designations (diabase, melaphyre, psammite, and others). In 1829 he published a chronological scale of all suites known at that time on the basis of paleontological characteristics and independent of their lithological composition. From 1800 he was director of the Sèvres Porcelain Factory, where he organized a famous ceramics museum.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The turnaround came in 1800 with the appointment of a new administrator, Alexandre Brongniart (1770-1847) an engineer and scientist and the emergence of a new customer, Emperor Napoleon, who placed large orders, both for his own use and as diplomatic gifts.
Alongside the highlights from the visionary 'paper architects' Jean-Jacques Lequeu and Etienne-Louis Boullee are quicker studies by practitioners such as Alexandre Brongniart (designer of the Salon du Dessin's home, the Palais de la Bourse) and Rene Binet.
In addition, Alexandre Brongniart, who was the director of the Sevres from 1770-1847, was also a scientist and engineer.
Cuvier (1769-1832) was the leading catastrophist of his age and had noticed in mapping the Paris Basin with his colleague Alexandre Brongniart that many fossil groups appeared to die out at unconformities.
The palette was expanded only with improvements made at the Sevres factory, under the direction of Alexandre Brongniart, that is, from 1800 to 1847.