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Alfonso I(Alfonso the Catholic), 693?–757, Spanish king of Asturias (739–57). He was the son-in-law of the first Asturian king, PelayoPelayo
, d. 737, first king (c.718–737) of Asturias. He was elected king by the tribespeople of Asturias and by Visigothic leaders who had escaped Tariq. His victory over the Moors at Covadonga sometime between 718 and 725 marked the beginning of Christian resistance to
..... Click the link for more information. . A Berber rebellion (740–41) against the Moors enabled him to conquer parts of Galicia, León, and Santander.
Alfonso I(Alfonso the Battler) (ălfŏn`sō, äl–), d. 1134, king of Aragón and Navarre (1104–34), brother and successor of Peter I. The husband of UrracaUrraca
, d. 1126, Spanish queen of Castile and León (1109–26), daughter and successor of Alfonso VI. Her first husband, Raymond of Burgundy, died in 1107, and in 1109 she was married to Alfonso I of Aragón.
..... Click the link for more information. , queen of Castile, he fought unsuccessfully to extend his authority over her kingdom. He also fought energetically against the Moors, from whom he captured Zaragossa (1118), Calatayud (1120), and many other towns. His raid (1125) into Andalusia bolstered Christian morale, and he encouraged Christians in Muslim lands to settle in his domain. Alfonso was killed in battle against his stepson, Alfonso VII of Castile, and was succeeded by his brother Ramiro II in Aragón and by García IV in NavarreNavarre
, Span. Navarra , province (1990 pop. 527,318), N Spain, bordering on France, between the W Pyrenees and the Ebro River. Pamplona is the capital. Land and Economy
Navarre province forms the autonomous region of Navarra.
..... Click the link for more information. .
Alfonso I,1109?–1185, first king of Portugal, son of Henry of Burgundy. After his father's death (1112), his mother, Countess Teresa, ruled the county of Portugal with the help of her Spanish lover, Fernando Pérez. In 1128 young Alfonso, who had allied himself with discontented nobles, defeated her in battle and drove her into León with Pérez (Alfonso did not, despite the popular legend, put her in chains at Guimarães). Beginning as little more than a quasi-independent guerrilla chief, Alfonso spent his life in almost ceaseless fighting against the kings of León and Castile and against the Moors to increase his prestige and his territories. In 1139 he defeated the Moors in the battle of Ourique (fought not at Ourique, but at some undetermined place). In 1147 he took Santarém by surprise attack and, with the help of the English, Flemish, and German crusaders, captured Lisbon. He began to style himself king in 1139, and in 1143, by the Treaty of Zamora, he placed his lands under papal protection and secured Castilian recognition of his title, which was confirmed (1179) by Pope Alexander III. Alfonso's son Sancho ISancho I
, c.1154–1211, king of Portugal (1185–1211), son and successor of Alfonso I. He was associated in his father's government from c.1170. Sancho undertook to restore and repeople the lands devastated in the wars against the Moors; thus he became known as
..... Click the link for more information. ascended an established throne.