Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.
Alfonso VI,1643–83, king of Portugal (1656–83), son and successor of John IV. Slightly paralyzed and mentally defective, he led a dissolute youth until he came under the influence of the count of Castelho Melhor in 1662. The count of Castelho Melhor then took over the government and ruled ably. Under Castelho Melhor's direction the army won the series of victories over Spain (1663–65) that finally secured Spanish recognition of Portuguese independence (1668). After Alfonso's marriage (1666) to Marie Françoise of Savoy, daughter of the duc de Nemours, the young queen took a hand in government. She and the king's younger brother (later Peter IIPeter II,
1648–1706, king of Portugal (1683–1706), younger son of John IV; brother and successor of Alfonso VI. In 1667, he seized power from his incompetent brother and ruled the country as prince regent until Alfonso's death.
..... Click the link for more information. ) fell in love, and in 1667 they forced Castelho Melhor from power and made Alfonso sign over the government to Peter, who became prince regent. A quick annulment of her marriage to Alfonso enabled Marie Françoise to wed the new regent. Alfonso was confined in the Azores until 1674 and at Sintra thereafter.
Alfonso VI,1030–1109, Spanish king of León (1065–1109) and Castile (1072–1109). He inherited León from his father, Ferdinand I. Defeated by his brother Sancho IISancho II
, d.1072, Spanish king of Castile (1065–72), son and successor of Ferdinand I. He conquered (1072) León from his brother Alfonso VI, but his sister Urraca rebelled against him at Zamora, and Sancho was assassinated while besieging the city.
..... Click the link for more information. of Castile, he fled to the Moorish court of Toledo. After Sancho's assassination (1072) Alfonso succeeded to the throne of Castile and took Galicia from his brother García (1073). He thus became the most powerful Christian ruler in Spain. He encouraged Christians in Muslim lands to migrate north, and he raided Muslim territory, penetrating as far south as Tarifa. After the conquest of strategic Toledo (1085), he took many other cities and reached the line of the Tagus River. Alarmed by his advance, Abbad III (see AbbadidsAbbadids
, Arab dynasty in Spain that ruled Seville from 1023 to 1091. Taking advantage of the disintegration of the caliphate of Córdoba, the cadi [judge-governor] of Seville seized power and became (1023) king of the newly founded state as Abbad I.
..... Click the link for more information. ) and his Muslim allies called to their aid the Almoravid Yusuf ibn TashfinYusuf ibn Tashfin
, d. 1106, ruler in the dynasty of the Almoravids (c.1059–1106). A Muslim, he led the Berbers in N Africa, continued the conquest of Morocco, took Algeria, and founded (1062) Marrakech, which became his capital.
..... Click the link for more information. , who defeated Alfonso in 1086. Alfonso was defeated again in 1108, and his only son died in the battle. Alfonso's reign gave a great crusading impulse to the reconquest of Spain and was also notable for the exploits of the CidCid
or Cid Campeador
[Span.,=lord conqueror], d. 1099, Spanish soldier and national hero, whose real name was Rodrigo (or Ruy) Díaz de Vivar. Under Ferdinand I and Sancho II of Castile he distinguished himself while fighting against the Moors, but Alfonso VI
..... Click the link for more information. . Alfonso's court at Toledo became the center of cultural relations between Muslim and Christian Spain. French influence was strong because of the king's many French followers; French monks introduced the Cluniac reform into León during his reign. Alfonso was succeeded by his daughter UrracaUrraca
, d. 1126, Spanish queen of Castile and León (1109–26), daughter and successor of Alfonso VI. Her first husband, Raymond of Burgundy, died in 1107, and in 1109 she was married to Alfonso I of Aragón.
..... Click the link for more information. .
died 1109, king of Léon (1065--1109) and of Castile (1072--1109). He appointed his vassal, the Spanish hero El Cid, ruler of Valencia